视觉搜索中注意捕获的控制机制
其他题名On the Mechanism of Attentional Capture in Visual Search
刘宁
学位类型博士
导师张侃
2008-05-30
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词注意捕获 视觉搜索 知觉负荷
摘要传统上视觉搜索中注意捕获的控制机制主要包括两种:一种是自上而下加工的控制,比如注意定势、搜索模式的影响;另一种是自下而上的控制,比如刺激的显著性影响。在已有的注意捕获理论中,有条件注意捕获理论更强调自上而下的加工控制,而纯粹注意捕获理论更强调自下而上的加工控制。Lavie等人提出的注意知觉负荷理论为注意捕获控制机制的解释提供了新的视角。本研究从已有的注意捕获理论以及注意的知觉负荷理论出发,采用注意捕获的视觉搜索范式对注意捕获中知觉负荷的调节作用,观察者搜索模式对注意捕获的影响,以及干扰子时间、空间特点对注意捕获的影响等三方面内容进行了探讨。研究试图通过对前注意阶段和注意阶段两种视觉搜索形式中的注意捕获现象的研究,揭示视觉搜索中注意捕获的控制机制。研究主要得到以下结论: (1) 无论是通过搜索项目的数量还是相似度操作知觉负荷,研究结果都表明在仅在低知觉负荷条件下特异干扰子才能够捕获注意,知觉负荷对注意捕获具有明显的调节作用。 (2) 搜索模式能够影响注意捕获,但更重要的是这种影响也仍然受到知觉负荷的调节。 (3) 当干扰子是一致干扰子和不一致干扰子时,距离对搜索反应时的结果模式有显著影响:注意阶段视觉搜索中,干扰子距离目标较远时能产生反应延迟效应。 (4) 干扰子在目标出现之前和与之后呈现的时程特点对注意捕获的影响具有一定的对称性,表现出相同的模式:同时呈现时注意捕获效应最大,随着SOA增加注意捕获效应逐渐减小,在特定时间点注意捕获效应消失,在更晚的阶段注意捕获效应又有所增加。 总之,研究结果证明视觉搜索中注意捕获的控制机制是自上而下因素、自下而上因素和可支配的注意资源三方面因素共同作用的结果。研究对于进一步揭示视觉搜索中注意捕获的机制具有重要的理论意义,研究成果对于诸如驾驶分心等应用领域具有较强的指导作用和应用价值。
其他摘要Theories of Visual search generally differentiate between bottom-up control and top-down control. Bottom-up control occurs when visual selection is determined by the stimulus properties in the search field. Top-down control takes place when observers are able to select those stimuli that are in line with their attentional sets. Pure stimulus-driven capture and contingent capture are two main theories on attentional capture by now, in which, theory of pure capture more emphasize bottom-up control, while theory of contingent capture more emphasize top-down control. Besides those two theories, Perceptual load theory of attention provides completely new perspective to explain attentional capture. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism of attentional capture in visual search on the basis of the existing theory of attentional capture and Perceptual load theory of attention. Three aspects of questions were explored in this study, which includes: the modulation role of perceptual load on attentional capture; the influence of search mode on attentional capture; and the influence of stimuli’s spatial and temporal characteristics on attentional capture. The results showed that: (1) Attentional capture was modulated by perceptual load in both conditions in which perceptual load manipulated either by amount of stimuli or similarity of stimuli. (2) Search mode did influence attentional capture, but more important, which was also modulated by perceptual load. (3) The spatial characteristics of congruent and incongruent distractor did influence attentional capture, specifically, the further the distractor from the target, the more interference effect the distractor had on visual search. (4) The temporal characteristics of distractor did influence attentional capture, specifically, the pattern of results from the study in which distractor were presented after the search display, were similar to those from the study in which distractors were presented before the search display. In sum, the results indicated that attentional capture are controlled not only by bottom-up factors, top-down factors but also modulated by available attention resources. These findings contribute to resolve the controversy for mechanism of attentional capture. And the potential application of this research was discussed.
页数116
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4638
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
刘宁. 视觉搜索中注意捕获的控制机制[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2008.
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