PSYCH OpenIR  > 中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
Thesis Advisor傅小兰
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral心理研究所
Keyword注意 动物监控假说 进化心理学 范畴特异性模块 返回抑制
Abstract人类视觉注意机制是在经历了数十万年进化选择后而形成的产物。作为进化学意义上的适应,注意的最重要功能是帮助人类更有效地选择和处理周围环境中的重要信息与事件,从而提高个体基因成功延续的可能性。在早期人类的生存环境中,动物无疑是一类有着重要进化意义的刺激范畴。由于如何处理动物相关信息直接关系到了人类的生死存亡,一些学者提出了在人类的注意系统中存在有一个专门用于侦测和监控动物刺激的特异性模块,即所谓的动物监控假说(animate monitoring hypothesis)。本研究借助返回抑制(inhibition of return)效应以及空间线索范式的几种变式检验了动物监控假说的两个主要预测:(1)环境中的动物类刺激能够自动地捕捉注意;(2)注意抑制过程对动物刺激有效性会低于其它范畴的刺激。研究结果支持了动物特异性模块的存在。本研究为更加全面地了解注意机制在解决人类进化过程中所面临的重大适应性问题中所扮演的重要角色做出了贡献。; Human being’s visual attentional system is the direct results of millions of years of evolutionary selection. As an adaptation to the environment, the most prominent function of attentional system is to facilitate the effective selection and subsequent processing of the most critical information and events from the environment with the aim of enhancing a given individual’s chance of passing his/her gene to the next generation. In the living environment of ancestral human beings, animals were undoubtedly one of those stimulus categories of great evolutionary significance. Since the process of animal-related information had life-or-death consequences for ancestral human beings, some researchers proposed a so-called animate monitoring hypothesis which states that there exists a category-specific module in the attentional system of human beings which specializes in the detection and frequent re-inspection of animal stimuli. Drawing on the available findings and theories regarding the inhibition-of-return effect, the present study utilized several variants of the spatial cueing paradigm to test the two main predictions of animate monitoring hypothesis:(1) animal stimuli in the environment are capable of summon attention in a reflexive way; (2) the inhibitory effect of attentional process on animal stimuli is less pronounced when compared to stimuli of other categories. The results of the present study provide supportive evidence to the existence of a category-specific module for animals in the attentional system. The present study contributes to the further understanding of the important role played by attentional mechanism in solving the critical adaptive problem faced by ancestral human beings during the course of evolution.
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
周昊天. 空间注意系统中的动物特异性模块[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2008.
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