应急疏散语音告警信号设计参数的研究
其他题名Research on Design Parameters of Voice Alarm in Emergency Evacuation
李慧洋
学位类型硕士
导师张侃
2008-05-30
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词应急疏散 语音告警 数量估计法 知觉到的紧急性 可懂度 三维模拟场景
摘要2008年奥运会、2010年世博会即将在北京、上海举行,届时各比赛场馆、展区等将成为人员密集地区。当紧急情况发生时人员应急疏散将是应对紧急情况中最困难的环节。公共场所应急疏散安全性能很大程度上取决于疏散系统设计,好的系统设计和疏散管理可大大缩短疏散时间、降低可能的经济损失和人员伤亡。以往研究表明,在公共场所的应急疏散中,告警信号和语音告警系统起到重要的传播信息和引导疏散的作用,因此设计有效的告警系统是成功疏散的必要条件。然而语音告警信号的设计比一般的声音信号复杂得多,Wogalter(1999)提出人们对告警信号进行信息加工的C-HIP模型,将语音告警信号放入该模型可知,信号的产生、信息传递、人们对信号的理解和记忆,以及人们对告警信号产生的信念都将影响信号的效果。 因此本文通过认知工效学实验,研究如何设定合成语音告警信号的声学、语义参数,如何选择信号的内容,可以更好地设计语音告警信号,从而提高疏散的绩效。 用数量估计法和评价量表法对告警信号让人们感知到的紧急性进行研究,结果表明:告警信号语速越快、背景噪声越大、告警信号的信噪比越大,听话人感觉到越紧急。噪声水平和告警信号的内容有交互作用。4字/秒的告警信号大多被评价为不紧急,因此应急疏散语音告警信号应避免过低的语速。 用关键词评分法考察声学参数对告警信号可懂度的影响,三因素重复测量方差分析表明,说话人性别、信噪比主效应均不显著。语速对正确率的主效应边缘显著,7字/词条件下可懂度最高,这可能与语速快时,被试分配了更多的注意资源有关。 三维模拟场景中对不同内容告警信号条件下疏散行为的观察表明,当告警信号内容为“发生了什么事情和需要做什么”时,成功逃离的人最多。在改进后的实验场景中,三种信号下成功逃离的人数没有显著差异,但此时仍是第二类信号下人们的反应时间和疏散时间最短,虽然单因素方差分析表明这种差异不具有显著性,但这种趋势仍然可以为告警信号的设计提供依据。 综上,应急疏散语音告警信号的声学参数选择应综合考虑可懂度和紧急性两方面,告警信号的内容应包括通知现场人员发生了何种情况以及需要怎样做,并考虑公共场所实际的噪声水平等情况选用信号内容。
其他摘要Voice alarm plays an important role in emergency evacuation of public place, because it can provide information and instruct evacuation. This paper studied the optimization of acoustic and semantic parameters of voice alarms in emergency evacuation, so that alarm design can improve the evacuation performance. Both method of magnitude estimation and scale were implemented to investigate participants' perceived urgency of the alarms with different parameters. The results indicated that, participants evaluated the alarms with faster speech rate, with greater signal to noise ratio (SNR) and under louder noises more urgent. There was an interaction between noise level and content of voice alarm. Signals with speech rate below 4 characters / second were evaluated as non urgent at all. Intelligibility of the voice alarm was investigated by evaluating the key pointed recognition performance. The results showed that, speech rate’s effect was a marginal significance, and 7 characters / second has the highest intelligibility. It might because that the faster the signal spoken, the more attention was paid. Gender of speaker and SNR did not have a significant effect on the signals’ intelligibility. This paper also investigated impact of voice alarms' content on human behavior in emergency evacuation in a 3-D virtual reality environment. In condition of "telling the occupants what had happened and what to do", the number of participants who succeeded in evacuation was the largest. Further study, in which similar numbers of participants evacuate successfully in three conditions, indicated that the reaction time and evacuation time was the shortest in the aforesaid condition. Although one-way ANOVA shows that the difference was not significant, the results still provided some reference to the alarm design. In sum, parameters of voice alarm in emergency evacuation should be chosen to meet needs from both perceived urgency and intelligibility. Contents of the alarms should include "what had happened and what to do", and should vary according to noise levels in different public places.
页数70
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4680
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
李慧洋. 应急疏散语音告警信号设计参数的研究[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2008.
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