获取无意识结构知识的机制:主观熟悉感与刺激重复结构在人工语法学习中的作用
其他题名Mechanisms of unconscious structure knowledge acquisition
万璐璐
学位类型博士
导师傅小兰
2009-05-16
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词内隐学习 人工语法学习 无意识结构知识 主观熟悉感 重复结构
摘要在内隐学习领域,关于人们能够获取何种知识——是有意识的还是无意识的,一直是研究者们关注的核心问题之一。研究表明,人们的感觉经验对区分知识的意识状态有重要的作用。Dienes等人(2005)采用主观测量的方法将人们在人工语法学习中所获取的人工语法结构知识划分为有意识的结构知识和无意识的结构知识;当被试在测试阶段认为自己是在猜测时,他们在学习阶段所获得的知识是无意识的结构知识,这种结构知识除了与猜测有关,还与被试的直觉和熟悉感有关。本文通过两个研究考察了与无意识结构知识有关的主观熟悉感是否能被有意识的运用,以及刺激的重复结构在人工语法学习中的作用;研究二还采用了ERP的方法来探究知识获取意识性的神经机制。在研究一的4个行为实验中,通过让被试学习并根据指导语来区分两种人工语法,并对每个字符串进行熟悉感评价,同时报告规则判断是否基于熟悉感,考察了熟悉感在人工语法学习中的作用。研究结果表明,被试不仅能够根据要求选择出符合指定语法的字符串而忽略符合另一种语法的字符串,更重要的是,当被试认为自己正在运用熟悉感进行这种选择判断时,对符合指定语法的字符串的熟悉感评价值显著高于对符合另一种语法的字符串的熟悉感评价值,进而说明主观熟悉感在运用已获取的知识的过程中起着重要作用。研究二的行为实验通过操纵字符串本身的结构特征,发现被试能够获得关于重复结构的知识;而ERP实验的结果表明,违反重复结构的字符串在额区诱发更大的N2成分,被试获取有意识的结构知识比获取无意识的结构知识在额—中央区诱发更大的P300成分,从而进一步揭示了人工语法学习中知识获取意识性的神经机制。
其他摘要The nature of the distinction between conscious and unconscious knowledge is a core issue in the implicit learning field. Furthermore, the phenomenological experience associated with having knowledge is central to the conscious or unconscious status of that knowledge. Consistently, Dienes and Scott (2005) measured the conscious or unconscious status of structure knowledge using subjective measures. Believing that one is purely guessing when in fact one knows indicates unconscious knowledge. But unconscious structural knowledge can also be associated with feelings of intuition or familiarity. In this thesis, we explored whether phenomenological feelings, like familiarity, associated with unconscious structural knowledge could be used, paradoxically, to exert conscious control over the use of the knowledge, and whether people could obtain repetition structure knowledge. We also investigated the neural correlates of awareness of knowing, as measured phenomenologically. In study one, subjects were trained on two grammars and then asked to endorse strings from only one of the grammars. Subjects also rated how familiar each string they felt and reported whether or not they used familiarity to make their grammaticality judgment. We found subjects could endorse the strings of just one grammar and ignore the strings from the other. Importantly, when subjects said they were using familiarity, the rated familiarity for test strings consistent with their chosen grammar was greater than that for strings from the other grammar. Familiarity, subjectively defined, is sensitive to intentions and can play a key role in strategic control. In study two, we manipulated the structural characteristic of stings and explored whether participants could learn repetition structures in the grammatical strings. We measured phenomenology again and also ERPs. Deviant letters of ungrammatical strings violating the repetition structure elicited the N2 component; we took this to be an indication of knowledge, whether conscious or not. Strings which were attributed to conscious categories (rules and recollection) rather than phenomenology associated with unconscious structural knowledge (guessing, intuition and familiarity) elicited the P300 component. Different waveforms provided evidence for the neural correlates of different phenomenologies associated with knowledge of an artificial grammar.
页数102
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4700
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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万璐璐. 获取无意识结构知识的机制:主观熟悉感与刺激重复结构在人工语法学习中的作用[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2009.
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