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心理旋转中的整体优先效应及其机制
Alternative TitleThe global precedence on mental rotation and the underling mechanism
邱香
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor傅小兰
2009-05-26
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral心理研究所
Keyword心理旋转 整体优先效应 字母复合刺激 ERP 差异波始潜时
Abstract在人类的认知加工过程中整体与局部的关系一直备受研究者关注。整体信息加工和局部信息加工孰先孰后?孰快孰慢?至今尚无定论。Navon最先采用复合字母刺激进行行为实验,揭示了视知觉加工中的整体优先效应,即个体对整体字母的识别优于对局部字母的识别。这一现象在后期研究中被广泛地重复验证。已有很多研究表明视觉表象加工与视知觉机能等价,那么在视觉表象加工过程中是否也同样存在整体优先效应呢?本研究将Navon的复合刺激材料与传统心理旋转任务相结合,分别采用分配注意和集中注意范式探讨了心理旋转过程中的整体优先效应,并通过心理旋转特有的行为指标旋转速率和ERP成分探究了心理旋转过程中整体优先效应的内部机制。 研究一首先通过两个预实验表明,延长刺激的呈现时间可以削弱甚至消除正/镜像判断任务中的视知觉整体优先效应。在两个正式实验中,复合刺激的大/小字母分别旋转了不同角度,并且一直呈现在屏幕上直到个体按键反应。结果发现,不论是在集中注意范式(实验1)还是在分配注意范式(实验2)中,被试确实需要通过心理旋转来完成正/镜像判断任务,且个体完成大字母(整体)旋转任务所需的反应时都比完成小字母(局部)旋转任务的反应时要短,并且整体旋转的速率比局部旋转的速率更大,这表明在心理旋转加工中存在整体优先效应,整体旋转比局部旋转快。 研究二采用ERP实验技术利用心理旋转的电生理指标探讨心理旋转中整体优先效应的整体/局部旋转发生的先后关系,其行为数据表明存在心理旋转的整体加工优势,电生理数据表明整体旋转任务中的差异波始潜时显著短于局部旋转任务中的差异波始潜时。这进一步表明,整体旋转不仅先于局部旋转发生,而且在速度上也快于局部旋转。 研究三以影响视知觉整体优先效应的刺激呈现视角和呈现时间作为自变量,以整体优势的效应值为主要因变量,进一步考察心理旋转整体优先效应,以及它与视知觉整体优先效应的关系。结果发现,刺激呈现视角和呈现时间对心理旋转的整体优势均没有显著影响,这表明心理旋转的整体加工优势与视知觉的整体加工优势并不完全相同,但在一定条件下二者可以累积叠加。 本研究不仅揭示出心理旋转加工过程中的整体优先效应,而且深化了人们对整体/局部加工问题的认识,对阐明整体优先效应的发生源(locus)也有一定的参考价值。
Other AbstractIn the history of psychology research, more attention had been focused on the relation between local processing and global processing. For the global information and the local information, which is processed earlier? And which is processed faster? Precedence of the global over the local level in visual perception has been well established by Navon with compound stimuli, and Navon’s original study gave rise to many publications, including replications, generalization to other kinds of stimuli (nonverbal material, digits), populations (infants, children, brain-damaged subjects), and tasks (lateral visual hemifield presentation, copy drawing, memory recognition, and recall), and triggered some debate about the conditions in which global precedence is and is not observed (number, size, sparsity, and goodness of the stimuli, exposure duration, etc.). However, whether there is a global advantage or precedence in other cognitive processes was less tested. Most researches had suggested that there was a functional equivalency between visual perception and visual image processing. However, it’s still unknown whether there will be a global advantage on mental rotation. In the present study, we combined the mental rotation task with the compound stimuli to explore whether the global or local advantage also existed at the mental imagery transformation stages. In two pilot studies, the perceptual global precedence was found to be present in a normal/mirror-image judgment task when the stimuli exposure time was short; while the stimuli exposure time was prolonged (stimuli kept available till subjects’ response) the perceptual global precedence was showed to be eliminated. In all of the subsequent experiments, stimili would be presented till subjects’ response. Then mental rotation was added in normal/mirror-image judgment (some of the stimuli were rotated to certain angles from upright) in normal experiments, experiment 1 and 2 observed a global advantage on mental rotation both with a focused-attention design (Experiment 1) and divided-attention design (Experiment 2). Subjects’ reaction times were increased with rotation angles, and the accuracy was decreased with rotation angles, suggesting that subject need a mental rotation to make a normal/mirror judgment. The most important results were that subjects’ response to global rotation was faster than that to local rotation. The analysis of slope of rotation further indicated that, to some extend, the speed of global rotation was faster than that of local rotation. These results suggest a global advantage on mental rotation. Experiment 3 took advantage of the high temporal resolution of event-related potentials to explore the temporal pattern of global advantage on mental rotation. Event-related potential results indicated the parietal P300 amplitude was inversely related to the character orientation, and the local rotation task delayed the onset of the mental-rotation-related negativity at parietal electrodes. None clear effect was found for occipital N150. All these results suggested that the global rotation was not only processed faster than local rotation, but also occurred earlier than local rotation. Experiments 4 and 5 took the effect size of global advantage as the main dependent variable, and visual angle and exposure duration of the stimuli as independent variables, to examine the relationship between perceptual global precedence and global advantage on mental rotation. Results indicated that visual angle and exposure duration did not influence the effect size of global advantage on mental rotation. The global advantage on mental rotation and the perceptual global advantage seemed to be independent but their effects could be accumulated at some condition. These findings not only contribute to revealing a new processing property of mental rotation, but also deepen our understanding of the problem of global/local processing and shed light on the debate on locus of global precedence.
Pages118
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4702
Collection中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
邱香. 心理旋转中的整体优先效应及其机制[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2009.
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