学习不良少年的污名效应研究
其他题名The Studies of Stigma Effects of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities
张宝山
学位类型博士
导师俞国良
2009-05-30
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词学习不良 青少年学生 污名化 影响机制 污名应对
摘要污名是社会对某些个体或群体的贬低性、侮辱性的标签。群体相关的污名对被污名者有着深刻的影响。本研究以污名对学习不良少年的效应为主题,采用实验法和问卷法,首先检验了青少年对学习不良学生的态度和学习不良少年污名化知觉的特点;随后,通过建立模型和情境实验探讨了污名对学习不良少年产生影响的机制;最后,研究通过个体访谈的实验情境揭示了学习不良少年通过隐匿学习成绩应对污名的心理特点。研究较为系统地考察了污名对学习不良少年所产生的效应,对充分理解学习不良现象和干预学习不良学生都有着重要的意义。 本研究主要有以下发现: (1)总体上说,青少年学生对学习不良学生普遍持有消极的内隐态度和外显态度,并且具有较大的效应值;进一步分析发现,学习不良少年对学习不良学生持有相对积极的外显态度;不同类型、不同性别的学生对学习不良学生的内隐态度均没有显著差异。 (2)通过对872名中学生进行两次试测表明,新编制的《污名知觉问卷》和《自我污名问卷》具有较好的内容效度、结构效度、效标关联效度和较高的内部一致性信度。随后,应用两个量表比较了优秀学生、一般学生和学习不良学生污名知觉和自我污名的特点。结果表明,学习不良少年被社会文化轻度或中度污名化;学习不良少年的污名知觉和自我污名显著多于一般学生和优秀学生;二年级学习不良少年污名知觉和自我污名多于一年级和三年级,男学习不良少年的污名知觉和自我污名均多于女学习不良少年。 (3)以186名学习不良少年为被试,采用潜变量的路径分析检验了污名对学习不良少年学业目标产生影响的中介路径。结果发现,学习不良相关的污名对学业目标没有直接影响;污名知觉通过自我污名和学业效能感的中介传递作用对学业目标产生影响。 (4)刻板威胁对任务反馈和自尊的关系有着一定的影响。对84名学习不良少年研究的结果表明,在没有启动消极刻板印象的控制情境中,任务成败的反馈对学习不良少年自尊产生了明显影响:获得积极反馈时,学习不良少年的自尊提升,获得消极反馈时,学习不良少年的自尊降低;在启动消极刻板印象的刻板威胁情境中,获得积极反馈和获得消极反馈的学习不良少年的自尊之间没有显著差异,表明激活的关于学习不良学生的消极刻板印象削弱了任务成败反馈对学习不良少年自尊的影响。 (5)在与陌生专家访谈的情境中,学习不良少年通过隐匿学习成绩信息应对污名时,进行了明显的认知控制和行为控制:认知控制表现在隐匿学习成绩信息的学习不良少年有更多的学习相关想法的压抑和闯入体验,以及学习相关想法的可获得性增强;行为控制方面主要表现在隐匿学习成绩的学习不良少年报告出更多的自我监控行为。
其他摘要Stigma is defined as a sign of disgrace or discredit that sets a person apart from others. Stigmatized individuals had been significantly influenced by their group-based stigma. Through the methods of laboratory experiment and questionnaire surveys, the current study started with examining the attitudes of middle school students to the students with learning disabilities (LD), systemly explored the characteristics of perceived stigma and self-stigma of LD students, the mechanism that the influences of stigma on students with LD, and the mental control required to cope with the stigma. The results of the present studies had significant implications for the understanding of the LD phenomenon and the intervention of LD adolescents. The results indicate that: 1. Generally, middle school students had negative implicit attitude and negative explicit attitudes towards the LD students. The effect size of the phenomenon of this study is large. The LD students showed a more positive attitude than others on the explicit attitude measure; all students consistently had negative attitudes toward LD students on the implicit attitude indices, in addition, no group differences and gender differences were observed in the implicit attitude. 2. Eight hundred and seventy two students were surveyed to test the reliability and validity of the new developed perceived stigma scale and self-stigma scale. Both questionnaires showed sufficient content validity, construct validity, criterion-related validity and adequate internal consistency reliability. Then, both questionnaires were administered to student with high academic achievement (high achiever), students with middle academic achievement (middle achiever), and LD students. Results revealed that the LD students mildly stigmatized by the social culture. The LD students had more stigma perception and self-stigma than the middle achievers and high achievers. The results also indicated that there were more stigma perception and self-stigma for LD students in grade two than that of LD students in grade one and grade three; meanwhile, male LDstudent hade more stigma perception and self-stigma than female LD students in all grades. 3. A latent variable path analysis was conducted to investigate how the stigma affect the academic goals using the data collected from 186 LD students. The results suggested that the LD-related stigma did not have direct influence on academic goals. The LD-related stigma indirectly influenced the academic goals through mediating effects of self-stigma and academic efficacy. 4. Stereotype threat could have some influences on the relationship between the task feedback and self-esteem. The results of study using eighty-four LD students showed that: when the negative stereotype was not primed, the self-esteem of the LD students was significantly influenced by the feedback of the task: an enhance self-esteem following a positive feedback and a lower self-esteem following a negative feedback. When the negative stereotype was primed, there was no significantly difference between the positive feedback group and negative feedback group. All the results showed that priming the negative stereotype could weaken the influence of feedback to the self-esteem of LD students. 5. There was more cognitive and behavioral control when LD students tried to cope with the stigma by concealing negative academic achievement during an individual interview with an unfamilar expert. The LD students whose academic achievements could be concealed had more thought suppression and thought intrusion and reported more self-monitoring behavior than the participants in the other experimental conditions.
页数143
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4712
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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GB/T 7714
张宝山. 学习不良少年的污名效应研究[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2009.
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