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中学生的性别—理科刻板印象及其影响因素
Alternative TitleThe Gender-Science Stereotype and Influence Factors in Chinese Secondary School Students
柳铭心
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor胡卫平
2009-05-28
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral心理研究所
Keyword性别刻板印象 理科 理科态度 学业自我效能感 教师课堂行为 成就期望 中学生
Abstract性别刻板印象会对个体的认知和行为产生重要影响,而对性别和理科关系的刻板认知更是影响着个体的学业和职业选择,本研究使用内隐联想测验与问卷相结合的方法,以初一到高二年级学生为被试,考察了中学生性别与理科关系的现状、中学生对性别与理科关系的认知及其影响因素,从而了解中学生性别—理科刻板印象的发展,并为如何减弱或消除刻板印象的消极影响提供依据。主要结果如下: (1)中学阶段的男生和女生在数学和物理科目的成绩上是相似的,男生并不存在性别优势;但女生将数学和物理成功归因于不稳定因素,失败归因于稳定因素,而男生则相反。这种性别归因偏差在物理学科上尤为明显。 (2)初一到高二年级学生(除初一年级男生)存在着理科=男性、文科=女性的内隐刻板印象,男生和女生这种内隐认知的发展趋势是相同的,都是随着年级的升高刻板程度增强。 (3)从初二年级开始女生的外显与内隐刻板印象之间呈现出负向相关关系并且随着年级的升高逐渐增强,在高一和高二年级达到显著水平;初一到高二年级男生的外显与内隐刻板印象之间存在着显著的正向相关关系。 (4)女生的理科态度、科技兴趣和理科自我效能感对内隐性别—理科刻板印象有显著的负向影响,男生则为正向影响,即性别在个体经验变量与性别刻板印象之间起着调节作用,理科态度则在科技兴趣、理科自我效能感和性别—理科刻板印象之间起着中介作用,这一结果对女生来说更为重要。 (5)中学生感知到的物理教师的课堂行为和家长的性别刻板印象对内隐性别—理科刻板印象有显著的正向影响,感知到的教师和家长对成绩的期望则能够通过影响相应学科的自我效能感和理科态度从而间接影响性别—理科刻板印象。 综上所述,我国中学生对性别与理科关系的认知并不是真实状况的反映,女生对性别与理科关系的问题很敏感,教师和家长的言行中表现了传统的刻板认知,他们传达给学生的信息影响着中学生的理科学习体验(尤其是理科态度)以及刻板认知的形成。
Other AbstractGender stereotype has a great effect on an individual’s cognition and behavior. Notably, stereotyped cognition about gender and science exerts an influence on an individual’s academic or career choice. In order to weaken the negative effect of gender-science stereotype and facilitate girls’ participation in science, this study examined the development of implicit gender-science stereotype and influence factors with implicit association test and questionnaires in a sample of secondary school students. The present work showed that: Firstly, there were no gender differences and gender predominance in performance of math and physics during secondary school years. However, girls tended to attribute success in math and physics to unstable factors, or the failure to stable factors. The reverse was true for boys’ attribution. This gender difference in attribution was especially evident in their study of physics. Secondly, 7th to 11th grade students implicitly regarded science as male domain, with the exception of 7th grade boys, who thought both boys and girls can study science well. On the whole, this gender-science stereotype was more and more evident as the specialization of science subjects’ progresses through secondary school, and this inclination decreased with increasing grade. Thirdly, the negative correlation between explicit and implicit stereotype which appeared in girls from 8th grade grew stronger with increasing grade and became significant in 10th grade. On the contrary, the significantly positive correlation existed in 7th -11th boys. Fourthly, the experience including attitude toward science, science interests and self –efficacy in math and physics had significantly negative effect on girls’ implicit gender-science stereotype, and significantly positive effect on boys’. It was showed that gender moderated the effect of experience in the study of science and implicit gender-science stereotype, and the attitude toward science mediated the relationship between science interests, self-efficacy and implicit gender-science stereotype. Fifthly, the perceived teacher’s class behaviours by students and the perceived parents’ gender stereotype by children had strong predictive power on students’ implicit gender-science stereotype. And the perceived teachers’ and parents’ performance expectancies can influence gender-science stereotype indirectly through self-efficacy in related subjects and attitude toward science. In conclusion, the present study showed that cognitive bias about gender and science existed in Chinese secondary school students. The information conveyed from teachers and parents interacting with students’ experience in the study of science affect the formation of stereotyped cognition.
Pages94
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4714
Collection中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
柳铭心. 中学生的性别—理科刻板印象及其影响因素[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2009.
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