物体朝向对场景内在参照系建立的影响
其他题名The Effect of Headings of Objects on Intrinsic Frames of Reference in Scenes
李晶
学位类型博士
导师张侃
2009-05-27
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词物体朝向 场景结构 观察视点数量 观察视点效应 内在参照系依赖效应 对称轴 场景空间记忆
摘要本研究通过6个实验探讨了在不同的场景结构和观察视点数量条件下,场景中物体的朝向如何影响人们内在参照系的建立。研究的第一部分,被试从场景的0°角度,对由无明显朝向的小球组成的不对称和对称场景分别进行了自由学习,然后完成部分场景再认任务。研究的第二和第三部分采用了有朝向的玩具进行测试,并且这些物体均朝向场景的315°方向。在研究的第二部分,被试从场景的0°角度,对由有明显朝向物体组成的不对称和对称场景分别进行了自由学习,然后进行部分场景再认。研究的第三部分,被试从场景的0°和315°两个角度对由有明显朝向物体组成的不对称和对称场景分别进行了自由学习,然后进行部分场景再认。研究均采用被试对目标刺激的正确反应的反应时作为主要因变量进行方差分析,正确率主要用以筛选数据,在部分实验中作为方差分析的参考。 结果发现:组成场景的物体朝向影响了人内在参照系建立的模式,并且场景结构影响了物体朝向的这种作用,但观察视点数量并没有这种影响。当场景中的物体没有明显朝向时,被试在完成部分场景判断任务时,反应时模式中存在着观察视点效应以及对称轴作为对称场景中内在参照轴的优势效应(内在参照系依赖效应)。而当场景中的物体有明显朝向时,人对空间场景的记忆模式受到这种朝向的影响,并且场景结构影响物体朝向的作用:在不对称场景条件下,当物体朝向(315°)和观察角度(0°)不平行时,观察视点效应消失,人除了从观察角度来学习记忆场景之外,还会选择从面对物体朝向的视点方向进行场景布局的学习和记忆,而且这种方向的学习更占优势。而在对称场景条件下,当物体朝向和场景的对称轴方向不同时,对称轴作为内在参照轴的优势显著性消失,但仍具有一定的优势趋势。相比之下可得知,物体朝向对于不对称场景的作用要比对称场景的作用更明显。
其他摘要Six experiments tested how headings of objects in scenes influenced the construction for the intrinsic frame of reference under different structure and viewpoint amount conditions. In Experiment 1 and 2, participants stood at 0 degree and learned an asymmetrical scene and a symmetrical scene that were composed by balls with no apparent headings separately. In Experiment 3, 4, 5 and 6, toys with apparent headings were used and they all faced the 315 degree of the scene. In Experiment 3 and 4, participants stood at 0 degree and learned an asymmetrical scene and a symmetrical scene that were composed by toys separately. In Experiment 5 and 6, participants stood at 0 and 315 degree and learned an asymmetrical scene and a symmetrical scene that were composed by toys separately. After learning, participants needed to finish triplet recognition tasks in all the experiments. The dependent measures were response latency and accuracy. The correct response latencies to the targets were analyzed by ANOVA. Accuracy was used to filter data and analyzed in an ANOVA in some experiments as a reference. Results indicate that headings of objects in scenes influence the pattern for intrinsic frame of reference. The structure of scene affects the acting mechanism of heading, but the amount of viewpoints does not have this effect. If the objects in scenes have no apparent headings, there will be viewpoint dependent effect and the advantage of symmetry axis as intrinsic axis in triplet recognition tasks. If the objects in scenes have apparent headings, people’s spatial memory pattern will be affected by objects’ headings. If the heading of objects (315 degree) is not parallel to the viewpoint (0 degree) in an asymmetrical scene, people will be inclined to represent the scene from the heading of objects but not from the viewpoint. As a result, the viewpoint dependent effect will disappear, and there is significant advantage for the triplets presented from heading of objects. If the heading of objects is not parallel to the symmetry axis in a symmetrical scene, people will represent the scene not only according to the symmetry axis as intrinsic axis, but also according to the heading of objects. As a result, the significant advantage for symmetry axis as intrinsic axis in triplet recognition tasks will disappear but there will be still a tendency. By contrast, the effect for the headings of objects is more significant in asymmetrical scenes than that in symmetrical scenes.
页数91
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4730
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
李晶. 物体朝向对场景内在参照系建立的影响[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2009.
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