情绪对创造力影响的发展性特点
其他题名The Effects of Emotions on Creativity Development from Adolescence to Young Adulthood
刘萍萍
学位类型硕士
导师施建农
2009-08-21
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词情绪 创造力 智力导入量 发展
摘要至今,情绪和创造力关系的研究已经有三十多年的历史,情绪可以促进创造力也可以抑制创造力。但是情绪影响创造力的机制是什么呢?这是研究者们一直探讨争论和试图解决的核心问题,可能是信息加工方式、多巴胺神经递质、生理的唤醒水平或者是主观的兴趣体验等等。但是,从个体差异年龄发展的角度,情绪对创造力的影响是否是一样的呢?有没有可能是情绪反应作用于个体的信息加工方式和认知态度,并影响了智力的导入量水平,从而影响了创造力。 本研究以1116名11-22岁的中学生和本科生为研究对象,选择与家庭有关的图片和文字作为情绪诱发材料,采用实用创造力测验为衡量创造力水平的工具,应用改编抽象匹配、图形相似性判断、范畴归类判断和新颖性评价等任务作为考察情绪和创造力机制的手段,着重探讨这一领域内亟需解决的几个基本问题: 1)创造力的发展趋势是一直单调上升还是波浪式前进;2)情绪对创造力影响的发展性特点是什么;3)推断情绪对创造力的影响机制是不是与“智力导入量”有关联,完善创造力系统理论。 主要的研究结果如下: 从初一到本科生阶段,创造力水平随着年龄增长呈现曲线上升趋势,只是在14-15岁(初二阶段)左右稍微有下降,不同年级的创造力水平存在着显著性差异。 不同情绪状态对于创造力影响的发展性特点存在差异性,11.00-13.99岁中性情绪的创造力成绩最差,而14.00-14.99岁、17.00-21.99岁,中性情绪的创造力成绩最好,但是情绪对创造力影响的发展性特点在统计上不具有显著性。 相对于消极情绪,不同年龄段的群体在积极情绪状态下完成抽象匹配任务时,更愿意投入更多的时间,正确率也较高,在统计上具有显著性,支持“智力导入量”理论。 相对于消极情绪,11.00-18.99岁的被试在积极情绪状态下更容易把一些不确定的类别归在同一个范畴种类里面,而19.00-21.99岁的被试在中性情绪状态下最容易把一些不确定的类别归在同一个范畴种类里面。 积极情绪状态下11.00-13.99岁、15.00-16.99岁、19.00-21.99岁的被试评价条目的新颖度显著高于消极情绪状态下被试的评价。不同情绪状态对于14.00-14.99岁的被试的评价没有显著性差异。 积极情绪状态下的多个年龄段的被试评价自己做判断(新颖性)的信心度显著高于消极情绪状态下被试的评价,但是对于14.00-14.99岁的被试,消极情绪下自我报告的信心度高于积极情绪。 概言之,本研究加深了情绪和创造力发展关系的了解,为探讨二者的影响机制,引入“导入量”的解释,尝试着新的理念和方法,仍然是初步探索阶段,研究结论仍然需要进一步论证。研究结果证明,情绪的确影响着人们的思维方式,诸如信息加工方式和任务专注时间,对于不确定情境评价判断的倾向以及个体做判断的信心等,这些被情绪影响的因素都可能会导致创造力水平发生变化,因而导致情绪促进或抑制创造力,并且随着年龄发生变化。
其他摘要Although robust findings have been that positive mood leads to greater creativity, several other literatures have found that negative mood sometimes results in more creative performance than positive or neutral mood. Several possible explanations for this emotion–creativity link have been proposed by researchers, but there has not yet been definitive research identifying the mechanism(s) behind this relationship. This research represents an initial step in this direction, examining the possibility that Intelligence Current may be a contributing mechanism in the emotion–creativity link from the perspective of development. The object of the present study was to do the followings 1) the effects and mechanism(s) of emotions on creativity development from adolescence to young adulthood by Unusual Uses Test; 2) the possibility that Intelligence Current may be a contributing mechanism in the emotion–creativity link. The participants were 849 adolescents in high schools and 267 undergraduates in the university aged from 11 to 22 years old. The mechanism(s) for emotion-creativity link was explored by cognitive flexibility (assessed using Abstract Match Task), tolerance (inclusive) ratings (assessed using Categorization of Analogy Task), uses originality ratings, and confidence ratings. Results indicated that: 1) The level of creativity varied with age. It increased from 11 years on, but decreased at about 14 to improve again from 15 to 22 years. 2) The different effects of emotions on creativity development among adolescents and undergraduates emerged, but the effects of positive and negative emotions on creativity didn’t differ from each other for the whole participants. Furthermore, compared with positive and negative emotions, the neutral emotions produced the lowest creativity for 11.00-13.99 years old group, but produced the highest creativity for 14.00-14.99 and 17.00-21.99years old. 3) Positive emotions have been shown to enable individuals to higher level of cognitive flexibility and better performance than negative emotions by Abstract Match Task, which could be considered that the Intelligence Current may be a contributing mechanism in the emotion–creativity link. 4) Positive emotions have been shown to enable individuals to own higher confidence, to categorize items with more flexibility, to see more potential relatedness among unusual and atypical members of categories, to evaluate items more originality than negative emotions among most of participants, especially the group of 14.00-14.99 years old. In sum, the present study helps us to further understand that the term ‘Intelligence Current’ is further explained and the problems found in relationships between creativity and emotions. However, further research is required to explore and confirm the conclusions of the present study.
页数110
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4746
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
刘萍萍. 情绪对创造力影响的发展性特点[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2009.
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