不同智力水平儿童的自我调控特点
其他题名Self-regulation among different intelligent groups of children
刘彤冉
学位类型博士
导师施建农
2009-05-28
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词自我调控 智力 儿童发展 自我意识 冲突监控
摘要不论从成功人士的经验分析,还是社会犯罪教训的总结都给出这样一个信号:自我调控是决定个人成功失败与否的重要因素,基于前人理论的探讨和实证性的研究,自我调控是同时具备个性心理特征和认知行为特征的一个心理概念,根据自我调控的这种特点,它的结构可以被划分为两个部分:自我调控个性倾向和自我调控能力。为了在前人研究的基础上更深一步的探讨自我调控的本质和机理,本研究选择儿童发展和个体差异两个切入点来系统考察自我调控的本质特征和探讨揭示自我调控与人类认知发展的关系。 本研究选择童年中期的儿童作为被试,高智力组和普通智力组两种水平作为个体差异的分类指标。研究一采用行为量表测查的方法考察在日常生活行为水平上高智力儿童是否比普通智力儿童具有更好的自我调控行为倾向,研究二在研究一基础上进一步从实验室的认知心理学研究角度研究分析高智力儿童比普通智力儿童更优异的自我调控能力的认知特点,研究三则在研究一和研究二的研究结果和研究发现的基础上从大脑神经活动的角度来深入探讨高智力儿童比普通儿童所具有的更优异的自我调控能力的神经机制。共得到以下主要结论: (1) 在日常经验和行为观察水平基础上,并结合行为量表的测查发现高智力儿童比普通儿童具有更好的自我调控个性倾向,表现在他们在谨慎性、有恒性和敢为性等与自我调控相关的个性特征上的得分显著的高于普通组儿童,而且,高智力组儿童的自我意识要优于普通组儿童,他们更可以清楚地认识自我、认识自我与他人、认识自我与环境之间的关系。 (2) 根据前人的研究将复杂的自我调控能力进行分不同水平分别进行研究,在初等自我调控能力的抽象匹配任务中,高智力组儿童的反应速度要显著的快于普通智力组儿童;在中级自我调控能力的连续操作任务,高智力组儿童的执行加工和抑制加工能力都好于普通组儿童;在高级自我调控能力矛盾冲突监控任务中,高智力儿童的反应速度快于普通儿童,反应正确率高于普通儿童;另外,通过回归方程探讨自我调控能力与智力之间的关系发现:初级自我调控和高级自我调控能力对智力有更大的预测力。 (3) 高智力儿童的大脑神经的自动加工和对新异刺激的加工能力要优于普通组儿童,这说明他们具有更高效的神经效能,是他们优秀的自我调控能力重要的神经基础。高智力儿童依赖发展相对成熟的额叶和顶叶的相互作用可以更好地完成中级自我调控的执行加工和抑制加工;脑电的P3成分更多反映的是执行加工,执行加工主要调用的是顶叶的功能,而抑制加工过程的脑区的调用分为两个阶段:抑制加工的最初阶段调用的顶叶的功能,之后是额叶和顶叶功能的相互作用。高智力儿童在完成高级自我调控能力任务时的N2波幅要显著的大于高智力儿童,他们P3潜伏期要显著的短于普通儿童,高智力儿童额叶可以更好地联合使用额叶和顶叶的功能进行冲突控制,而普通儿童只能借助额叶进行冲突控制;冲突监控的N2的发生源在顶区,P3的发生源是额叶和顶叶相互作用的结果;有矛盾的实验条件引起更大的N2波幅的激活反应,不存在矛盾或冲突的实验条件相对于存在矛盾或冲突的条件引起更大的P3波幅的激活反应,基于刺激内部本身的冲突加工会更多的激活顶枕区的反应,而基于外部指导语的矛盾加工会更多的激活额叶。 综上所述,自我调控对儿童个性社会性和认知能力的发展都有重要作用,而且自我调控作为一种复杂的行为与能力有着独特的发生发展方式,自我调控与智力之间的密切的关系不但有助于对自我调控的理解更有助于对智力本质的认识。
其他摘要Self-regulation has recently become an important topic in cognitive and developmental domain. According to previous theories and experimental studies, it is shown that self-regulation consist of both a personality (or social) aspect and a behavioral cognitive aspect of psychology. Self-regulation can be divided into self-regulation personality and self-regulation ability. In the present study researches have been carried out from two perspectives: child development and individual differences. We are eager to explore the characteristics of self-regulation in terms of human cognitive development. In the present study, we chose two groups of early adolescences one with high intelligence and the other with normal intelligence. In Study One Questionnaires were used to compare whether the highly intelligent group had had better self-regulation personality than the normal group. In Study Two experimental psychology tasks were used to compare whether highly intelligent children had had better self-regulation cognitive abilities than their normal peers. Finally, in Study Three we combined the results of Study One and Study Two to further explore the neural mechanisms for highly intelligent children with respect to their good self-regulation abilities. Some main results and conclusions are as follows: (1) Questionnaire results showed that highly intelligent children had better self-regulation personalities, and they got higher scores on the personalities related to self-regulation such as, self-reliance, stability, rule-consciousness. They also got higher scores on self-consciousness which meant that they could know their own self better than the normal children. (2) Among the three levels of cognitive difficulties in self-regulation abilities, the highly intelligent children had faster reaction speed than normal children in the primary self-regulation tasks. In the intermediate self-regulation tasks, highly intelligent children’s inhibition processing and executive processing were both better than their normal peers. In the advanced self-regulation tasks, highly intelligent children again had faster reaction speed and more reaction accuracy than their normal peers when facing with conflict and inconsistency experimental conditions,. Regression model’s results showed that primary and advanced self-regulation abilites had larger predictive power than intermediate self-regualation ability. (3) Our neural experiments showed that highly intelligent children had more efficient neural automatic processing ability than normal children. They also had better, faster and larger neural reaction to novel stimuli under pre-attentional condition which made good and firm neural basis for self-regualation. Highly intelligent children had more mature frontal lobe and pariental functions for inhibition processing and executive processing. P3 component in ERP was closely related to executive processing which mainly activated pariental function. There were two time-periods for inhibition processing—first it was the pariental function and later it was the coordination function of frontal and pariental lobes. While conflict control task had pariental N2 and frontal-pariental P3 neural sources, highly intelligent children had much smaller N2 and shorter P3 latency than normal children. Inconsistency conditions induced larger N2 than conditions without inconsistency, and conditions without inconsistency (or Conflict) induced higher P3 amplitudes than with Inconsistency (or Conflict) conditions. In conclusion, the healthy development of self-regulation was very important for children’s personality and cognition maturity, and self-regulation had its own specific characteristics in ways of presentation and ways of development. Better understanding of self-regulation can further help the exploration of the nature of human intelligence and consciousness.
页数106
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4788
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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刘彤冉. 不同智力水平儿童的自我调控特点[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2009.
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