问题之间共性关系的意识水平对平面几何解题迁移的影响
杨卫星
学位类型博士
导师张梅玲
1998
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院心理研究所
学位专业发展与教育心理学
关键词解题迁移 平面几何 意识水平 学习水平 推理能力 认知风格
摘要学习的迁移是教育心理学中的一个非常重要的概念。早期关于迁移的几种学说都从不同的方面揭示了学习迁移现象的规律。当代的几种迁移理论还有待于进一步完善。关于迁移的实验研究曾在教育心理学史和实验心理学史上出现过高潮。近年来,由于认知心理学在问题解决的研究中发现了迁移的作用,并进而又发现了意识到问题之间存在的共性关系在迁移中的作用,使迁移的研究重新受到重视并成为研究的热点。然而,许多研究结果显示,关于解题者对先后问题之间共性关系的意识水平在解题迁移过程中是否影响迁移不存有争议,而且专门以意识为对象的实验研究还很少见到。作者在文献研究的基础上,采用了多因素实验设计的方法,抓住意识作用当前关于迁移研究的热点问题,结合中学数学教学实践的需要,以初三学生为被试,利用他们正在学习阶段的平面几何问题为材料,从问题的难度、意识水平和学生的自身特点三个维度对迁移进行了研究。通过实验得出下述五个结论:1. 在平面几何解题过程中,解题者对具有内在联系的先后问题之间共性关系的意识水平,是影响解题迁移的重要因素之一。2. 迁移题的难度太大或太小,将导致解题者先后问题之间共性关系的意识作用的失败而使迁移成绩出现地板效应和天花板效应,且意识水平与问题难度在影响解题迁移时有交互作用。即只有当迁移题属于中等难度时,意识水平对解题迁移的影响才是显著的。3. 在平面几何解题过程中,解题者对先后问题之间共性关系的意识水平在影响解题迁移时与他们的学习水平有交互作用。即和学习水平低的学生相比,在学生水平高的学习中,意识水平对解题迁移的影响较大。4. 初中生的平面几何成就与他们的推理能力呈正相关,即推理能力高的学生比推理能力低的学生能更好的学习平面几何。但若同时提高他们的意识水平,解题迁移的成绩都会有显著提高。5.初中生的平面几何成就与他们的认知风格呈正相关,即具有场独立性倾向的学生比具有场依存性倾向的学生能更好的学习平面几何,而且场独立性越强,学习成就越高。但若同时提高他们的意识水平,解题迁移的成绩都会有显著提高。最后,本文在研究结论和发现的基础上,对初中平面几何教学改革提出了两条切实可行的建议。
其他摘要Transfer of learning is one of the major concepts in educational psychology. As cognitive psychology develops, many researchers have found that transfer plays an important part in problem solving, and the awareness of the similarity of related problems is important in transfer. So they become more interested in researching the problem of transfer. But in the literature of transfer research, it has been found that many researchers do not hold identical conclusions about the influence of awareness of related problems during problem solving transfer. This dissertation is written on the basic of much of sub-research work, such as looking up literature concerning transfer of problem solving research, comparing the results of research work done recently and experimental researches. The author of this dissertation takes middle school students as subjects, geometry as materials, and adopts factorial design in his experiments. The influence of awareness of related problems on problem solving transfer is examined from three dimensions which are the degree of difficulty of transfer problems, the level of awareness of related problems and the characteristics of subjects themselves. Five conclusions have been made after the experimental research: (1) During the process of geometry problem solving, the level of awareness of related problems is one of the major factors that influence the effect of problem solving transfer. (2) Either more difficult or more easy of the transfer problems will hinder the influence of awareness of related problems during problem solving transfer, and the degree of difficulty of the transfer problems have interactions with the level of awareness of related problems in affecting transfer. (3) During geometry problems solving transfer, the level of awareness of related problems has interactions with the degree of student achievement. Compared with the students who have lower achievement, the influence of the level of the awareness is bigger in the students who have higher achievement. (4) There is positive correlation between geometry achievement and reasoning ability of the middle school students. The student who has higher reasoning ability has higher geometry achievement, while the level of awareness is raised, the transfer achievement of both can be raised significantly. (5) There is positive correlation between geometry achievement and cognitive style of the middle school students. The student who has independent field tendency of cognitive style has higher geometry achievement, while the level of awareness is raised, the transfer achievement of both can be raised significantly. At the end of the dissertation, the researcher offers two proposals concerning Geometry teaching on the basis of the research findings.
页数79
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4800
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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杨卫星. 问题之间共性关系的意识水平对平面几何解题迁移的影响[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1998.
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