学前儿童朴素生物学“理论”的发展——对“生长”认知的实验研究
朱莉琪
学位类型博士
导师方富熹
1998
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院心理研究所
学位专业发展与教育心理学
关键词学前儿童 朴素理论 生物学 生长 特殊领域知识
摘要认知发展理论中一个长期有争议的问题是认知发展的普遍性和特殊性问题。目前越来越多的研究者认为认知发展具有领域特殊性。人们开始致力探查学前儿童在人类基本知识领域中正在形成和发展的朴素理论。朴素生物学即为这种核心知识领域之一。但对学前儿童是否有独立的朴素生物学概念研究者还是各执一词。本研究在生长和生命两种水平上探查了学前儿童朴素生物理论的发展,发展中的个体差异及影响差异的内外因素。本研究设计了三个实验研究,研究一从具体生物现象-生长出发,探查儿童对这一生物体基本特征的认知,以及他们是否在生长维度上对生物和非生物进行区分并作出因果解释,研究二从整合水平上探查学前儿童对生物和非生物的区分,研究三探查儿童如何利用特殊领域知识对不熟悉的物体特征进行推理。研究结果表明:1、在生长维度上,学前儿童逐渐形成了朴素生物学的理论框架,但在整合水平上的朴素生物学理论尚未在学前期形成;2、学前儿童的朴素生物学理论不是“全或无”,4岁和5岁的儿童对生物和非生物表现出一定程度的区分,在对生长原因的解释中,他们也用非意图的自然原因,而且其所陈述的原因表现出一致性。但生长尚未成为4岁和5岁儿童对生物和非生物作本体区分的指标,多数6岁儿童能够在生长维度上区分生物和非生物,表现出朴素生物学认知的发展过程;3、学前儿童的生物领域的推理受其特殊领域知识的影响,他们能否对生物的新特征推理取决于他们领域知识。在演绎推理任务中,他们用已有的特殊领域知识对不熟悉的物体的特征进行推理,4岁儿童较多用具体知识,而6岁儿童则越来越多地用到概括性知识;4、学期儿童的朴素生物学认知随年龄增长呈提高趋势,但不同个体在不同实验任务中的认知加速期不同。城乡教育条件的差异影响认知成绩,但随年龄增长,城乡儿童在区分生物与非生物的知识方面的差异有减小趋势。由各年龄组儿童对生物现象的因果解释理由的质与量的相似,可以看出学前儿童的生物认知发展具有同质性;5、学前儿童的朴素生物学认知存在个体内部差异,他们对不同实验任务、不同领域的认知表现出不平衡性,其认知发展表现出顺序性,他们对生物的具体特征“生长”的认知发展较早,对“活”这一整合的抽象概念的认知滞后于前者,随年龄增长,个体内部差异减小。
其他摘要There is a debate in cognitive development theory on whether cognitive development is general or specific. More and more researchers think that cognitive development is domain specific. People start to investigate preschoolers' native theory of human being's basic knowledge systems. Naive biology is one of the core domains. But there is argument whether there is separate native biological concepts among preschoolers. The research examined preschoolers' cognitive development of naive biological theory on two levels which is "growth" and "aliveness", and it also examined individual difference and factors that lead to the difference. Three studies were designed. Study 1 was to study preschoolers' cognition on growth, which is a basic trait of living things, and whether children can distinguish living and non-living things with the trait and understanding the causality. Study 2 was to investigate preschoolers' distinction between living things and non-living things from an integrated level. Study 3 was to investigate how children make inferences to unfamiliar things with their domain specific knowledge. The results showed the following: 1. Preschoolers gradually developed naive theory of biology on growth level, but their naive theory on integrated level has not developed. 2 Preschoolers' naive theory of biology is not "all or none", 4- and 5-year-old children showed some distinction between living and non-living things to some extent, they use non-intentional reason to explain the cause of growth and their explanation showed coherence. But growth has not been a criteria of ontological distinction of living and non-living things for 4- and 5-year-old children, most 6-year-old children can distinguish between living and non-living things, and these show the developing process of biological cognition. 3. Preschoolers' biological inference is influenced by their domain-specific knowledge, whether they can make inference to new trait of living things depends on whether they have specific knowledge. In the deductive task, children use their knowledge to make inference to unfamiliar things. 4-year-olds use concrete knowledge more often while the 6-year-old use generalized knowledge more frequency. 4. Preschoolers' knowledge grow with age, but individuals' cognitive development speed at different period. Urban and rural educational background affect cognitive performance. As time goes by, the urban-rural knowledge difference to distinguish living and nonliving things reduces. And preschoolers' are at the same developmental stage because the three age groups have similar causal explanation both in quantity and quality. 5. There is intra-individual difference on preschoolers' naive biological cognition. They show different performance on different tasks and domains, and their cognitive development is sequential, they understand growth earlier than they understand "alive", which is an integrated concept. The intra-individual differences decrease with age.
页数65
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4802
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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朱莉琪. 学前儿童朴素生物学“理论”的发展——对“生长”认知的实验研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1998.
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