中美大学生归因偏差的跨文化研究
付建斌
学位类型博士
导师焦书兰
1998
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院心理研究所
学位专业普通心理学
关键词对应偏差 过分外在归因偏差 群体间归因偏差 自我服务归因偏差 内隐理论 中美大学生跨文化比较
摘要本文系统比较了中美大学生的四种归因偏差的特点:对应偏差、过分外在归因偏差、群体间归因偏差和自我服务归因偏差,以及考察了反映文化影响的内隐理论对归因偏差的作用。本文首先分析了可能影响中美大学生归因偏差产生的三对对立的内隐理论:人格特质主义者理论和情境主义者理论、普遍主义和特殊主义、对自我正性评价的重视与轻视。并编制了测量这些理论的现代内隐理论量表和传统内隐理论量表,结果表明这些量表具有较好的信、效度指示,适用于中、西跨文化的团体比较研究中。通过量表测查同时发现,中国大学生对这些对立的内隐理论的支持态度都比美国大学生高。论文接着探讨了中美大学生在内-外维度的归因准确性问题,结果发现在不同的限制显著性条件下中美大学生均表现出了对应偏差,而且不同的限制显著性条件下的偏差程度没有差异;中美大学生也都表现出了过分外在归因偏差;中国大学生比美国大学生表现出了更多的对应偏差和过分外在归因偏差。在对中美大学生的群体间归因偏差的研究中发现,中美大学生在对亲戚、朋友和陌生人的行为归因时均未表现出明显的群体间归因偏差,相反中美大学生对三类人的行为都有一定的偏袒倾向。这种偏袒倾向在中国人对陌生人行为归因的内-外维度、控制性维度评定上,对亲戚、朋友行为归因的稳定性维度评定上,以及美国大学生对朋友行为归因的稳定性维度评定上表现的十分显著。对中美大学生的自我服务归因偏差的研究发现,中美大学生表现出了明显的自我服务归因偏差:中国大学生的自我服务归因偏差在结果效应上体现在归因的四个维度上-内-外维度、稳定性维度、控制性维度和广泛维度,而美国大学生在三个归因维度上(除了控制性维度);在分类效应上,中国大学生的自我服务归因偏差都表现在对自己与他人坏行为归因的内-外维度、稳定性维度和广泛性维度等三个维度上,而美国大学生亦表现在对自己与他人坏行为归因的比较上,只不过他们是在稳定性和广泛维度上产生了显著差异。研究还发现中国大学生的自我服务归因偏差比美国大学生程度更大,这体现在结果效应的内-外维度、稳定性维度和控制性维度等三个维度上和分类效应坏行为归因的内-外维度、稳定性维度和广泛维度等三个维度上。本论文的所有研究均表明,中美大学生的内隐理论对其对应偏差、过分外在归因偏差、群体间的归因和自我服务归因偏差都没有显著影响。本文分析了这些结果的理论和实际意义,并指出了将来的研究方向。
其他摘要This research systematically compared Chinese undergraduates with American undergraduates on four kinds of attributional bias: correspondent bias, siuational overattribution, intergroup attributional bias and self-serving attributional bias, and examined the effect of the implicit theories reflecting the cultures on attributional bias. First is analyzed three pairs of opposite implicit theories: dispositionalist theory and situationalist theory, generality and particularity, stressing the positive evaluation of self and despising the positive evaluation of self. It developed the Modern Implicit Theories Inventory and Traditional Implicit Theories Inventory to measure these implicit theories, and the results showed these inventories had satisfactory validity and reliability, and they were suitable for the group comparison of Chinese implicit theories with European-American. At the same time through the test it found Chinese undergraduates agreed all these opposite implicit theories more than American undergraduates. Second, it studied Chinese and American undergraduates' attributional accuracy on locus of causality. The results showed: Chinese and American undergraduates both had the correspondent bias under the different salient situational constraints, and the degree of Chinese and American undergraduates' correspondent bias under the different salient situational constraints had no significant difference' Chinese and American undergraduates both showed the situational overattribution; Chinese undergraduates had more the correspondent bias and situational overattribution than American undergraduates. Third, on the research of Chinese and American undergraduates' intergroup attributional bias, it found Chinese and American undergraduates both had no intergroup attributional bias among kin, friends and strangers, while they both show some favorable outcome effects for these three group actors. The favorable outcome effects were significant on the attributional dimensions of locus of causality and controllability for strangers' behavior, and stability for kin and friends' behavior rating by Chinese undergraduates, and stability for friends' behavior rating by American undergraduates. Fourth, it explored Chinese and American undergraduates' self-serving attributional bias, and the result indicated that Chinese and American undergraduates both showed significant self-serving attributional bias: for outcome effects, Chinese undergraduates' self-serving attributional bias were reflected on the attributional dimensions of locus of causality, stability, controllability and globality, and American undergraduates were reflected on the attributional dimensions of locus of causality, stability and globality; for categorization effects, both Chinese and American undergraduates' self-serving attributional bias were reflected on attributional difference between self's negative behavior and others', but Chinese undergraduates were embodied on the attributional dimensions of locus of causality, stability and globality while American undergraduates were reflected on the attributional dimensions of stability and globality. It also found Chinese undergraduates had more self-serving attributional bias than American undergraduates. This was reflected on the attributional dimensions of locus of causality, stability and controllability for outcome effects, and for categorization effects, locus of causality, stability and globality rating for self and others' negative behavior. All studies indicated that Chinese and American undergraduates' implicit theories had no significant effects on all their four attributional bias. These findings' potentially important implications were discussed and the further research was suggested.
页数114
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4804
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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付建斌. 中美大学生归因偏差的跨文化研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1998.
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