中学生抑郁和素质、压力、环境因素的关系及其整合模型研究
邱炳武
学位类型博士
导师王极盛
1998
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院心理研究所
学位专业发展与教育心理学
关键词抑郁 素质 压力 环境因素 中学生
摘要抑郁作为一种心境,是人们最经常体验到的情绪状态之一;抑郁症也是最常见的精神疾病之一。全世界每年有一亿多人受到抑郁的侵扰。因此,在很久以前,抑郁就在医学、心理学、社会学等学科内得到广泛的研究。但仍有许多理论问题有待解决。从近几十年的文献来看,关于抑郁的理论发展表现出从简单到复杂的发展趋势。早先的多数理论往往是描述某一单一因素与抑郁之间的关系,但这种单因素的理论解释是有缺陷的。因为抑郁者的特征多种多样,引起抑郁的因素也多种多样,任何一个单一因素都只能解释抑郁总体方差变异中有限的一部分,因而都是不全面的。随着人们对有关抑郁知识的积累,逐步明确抑郁是多种因素共同作用而产生的,在抑郁理论的建立上也出现把这些共同作用的因素整合到同一个模型中来的趋势。本研究运用我们自己编制的中学生抑郁量表测查了1625名从初一到高三六个年级中学生的抑郁状况,从抑郁心境的角度,探讨了归因风格、人格、应对方式和自我等四种与抑郁有关的抑郁性素质,并分析了抑郁性素质、压力与抑郁的关系;本研究还从环境影响的角度探讨了学校生活适应和家庭亲密度、适应性与抑郁的关系,最后运用协方差结构模型分析的方法综合探讨了环境、压力、抑郁性素质和抑郁之间的关系。本研究得出如下结论:(1)中学生抑郁表现出了明显的年级特征,即随着年级的上升,抑郁程度越来越严重。其主要原因可能是中学生年感受到的压力随年级增高和自我接纳随年级而降低。(2)抑郁性素质有高低之分,高抑郁性素质表现为把失败作能力归因、背景归因,进取能力低、社交性低、独立性低、自我接纳低、遇到困难时较少采取问题解决应对方式,高自责、高幻想等;低抑郁性素质表现为把失败不作能力归因、背景归因,进取能力高、社交性高、独立性高、自我接纳高,遇到困难时较多采取问题解决策略、低自责、低幻想应对方式等。具有高抑郁性素质的个体表现出较高的抑郁,具有低抑郁性素质的个体表现出较低的抑郁。(3)抑郁性素质存在累积效应,表现为个体身上所具有的低抑郁素质越多,则被试表现出的抑郁程度就低,个体身上所具有的高抑郁素质越多,则被试所表现出来的抑郁程度就高。(4)抑郁性素质可以预测当时和未来的抑郁状况,在预测程度上,对当时抑郁状况的预测较高,对未来抑郁状况预测次之。(5)具有不同水平抑郁性素质的个体在压力感受上也有差别,具有高抑郁性素质的个体感受到较高的压力,具有低抑郁性素质的个体感受到较低的压力。(6)生活事件压力和抑郁之间存在一定的相关关系,生活事件压力可以预测部分抑郁的方差变化。生活事件压力在抑郁上存在累积效应,即生活事件数愈多,压力愈大,则个体的抑郁愈严重。(7)抑郁和中学生学校生活适应有较高的相关关系,学校生活适应的状况可以预测抑郁状况。(8)中学生的抑郁和家庭亲密度、适应性之间存在较高的相关关系,家庭亲密度和适应性可以预测抑郁状况。(9)环境对素质的影响高于环境对压力的影响;素质对抑郁的影响高于压力对抑郁的影响;前一次的抑郁可以更好地预测后一次抑郁。本研究的理论意义表现为:通过对归因风格、人格、应对方式和自我等四种抑郁性素质的综合探讨,拓宽了抑郁性素质的研究范围;通过对环境、压力、抑郁性素质和抑郁之间关系的综合探讨,丰富了抑郁研究领域中素质-压力理论的内涵。本研究的实践意义表现为:为学校心理健康教育中的课程设置提供了部分内容框架;为抑郁的预防、治疗提供了操作上的实施框架。
其他摘要As a kind of mood, depression is one of the emotions which people experienced usually. Depressive disorder is one of the common mental diseases. There are about 100 million people in the world be disturbed by depression every year. So it is long history that depression is investigated widely in medicine, psychology, and sociology. There are many theorial problems remain to be solved. Viewed from latest vocuments, the development of depression theory is tending to become more complicated. Most of the prior depression theory focused on relation between one factor and depression. Because depressed individuls have various characteristics and factors that cause depression are different, and each factor can explain only part of depression variance, these prior depression theories are defected. As the knowledge about depression accumulated, the view that depression be caused by multifactor is clearer. There is tendency to integrate these cooperational factor into a model while developing a depression theory. In the present study, depression status of 1625 middle school students from junior 1 to senior 3 are measured using Depression Scale of Middle-school Student which is developed by ourselves. From approach of depressive mood, the present study explored depressive diathesis including attributional style, personality, coping style, and self. The relation among depressive diathesis, stress and depression is analysed. The relation between depression and school life adaptation, depression and cohesion, adaptation in family are also analysed from environmental view. At last, relation among environment, stress, depressive diathesis is examined by using covariance structure modelling. Synthesizing the results from the present study, the following conclusions were drawn: (1) There is grade-characteristics in development of depression in middle school students. Depression degree increased with grade. The main reason may be that the stress middle-school students experience increase and self-acceptance decrease with grade; (2) High depressive diathesis is different from low depressive diathesis. the features of high depressive diathesis are that attributing failure to ability or background, low capacity for status, low sociability, low independence, low self-blame, more illusion. The features of low depressive diathesis are that not attributing failure to ability or background, high capacity for status, high sociability, high independence, high self-acceptance, while facing difficulties, using problem-resolving coping strategy, less self-blame, less illusion. Individuals who have high depressive diathesis showed serious depression, and individuals who have low depressive diathesis showed light depression; (3) Depressive diathesis had accumulative effect on depression. More low depressive diathesis, more light is depression. More high depressive diathesis, more serious is depression; (4) Depressive diathesis can predict present depression and future depression. Predicting present depression is more effective than predicting future depression; (5) Individual who has different depressive diathesis experiences different level of stress. Higher the depressive diathesis individual has, higher stress he will experience. Lower the depressive diathesis individual has, lower stress will he experience; (6) There is correlation between life event pressure and depression. Life event pressure can predict a part of variance of depression. Life event pressure has accumulative effect on depression. More life event and higher life event pressure, more serious depression individual will experience; (7) There exits high correlation between depression and school life adaptation which can predict depression; (8) There is high correlative relation between depression and cohesion, adaptation in family which can predict depression; and (9) Environment have more effect on diathesis than on stress. Diathesis has more effect on depression than stress does. The past depression can predict future depression. This study had enlarged the domain of depressive diathesis such as attributional style, personality, coping style, and self, which are analysed wholly. This study had also enriched the connotation of diathesis=stress theory. Above two aspects are theoretical significance of the study. This study provide a framework of mental health educational curriculum in high school and provide the guideline for prevention and cure of depression. It is the practical significance of this study.
页数56
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4810
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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邱炳武. 中学生抑郁和素质、压力、环境因素的关系及其整合模型研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1998.
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