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小学生人工概念形成中认知策略发展的研究
傅增文
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor张梅玲
1998
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Discipline发展与教育心理学
Keyword小学生 人工概念形成 认知策略
Abstract本研究以多维度辨别学习作业为实验材料,以集体实验和个别实验相结合的方式,探查在不同教育条件下,小学生在人工概念形成中所采用认知策略及其发展的情况。在集体实验中,研究者以9种认知策略成分的得分记录小学生作出的反应,然后进行聚类分析;在个别实验中,研究者对被试的概念形成过程进行定性分析。本研究的主要结论如下:(1) 小学生所使用的不同认知策略影响着概念形成的过程。本研究通过聚类分析发现4种认知策略,即刺激偏好型、刺激描述型、维度检验型和聚焦型策略,刺激偏好型和刺激描述型策略不能形成正确的概念,维度检验型和聚焦型策略能形成正确的概念,其中聚焦型策略的正确率更高;(2) 小学生在人工概念形成过程中认知策略发展总的趋势是,2年级的学生倾向于采用刺激偏好型和刺激描述型策略,4、6年级的学生倾向于采用维度检验型和聚焦型策略;利用反馈信息和过去经验的能力是认知策略发展的关键,直接影响着概念形成的过程和结果;(3) 在不同教育条件下,2、4年级学生在人工概念形成过程中各种策略的选择上表现出较显著的差异,而6年级学生则差异不显著;(4) 各种认知策略成分在认知策略发展过程中表现出非常复杂的变化趋势,随着认知策略由低级向高级发展,有些成分呈增强的趋势,有些成分则呈最初增强,但又转而减弱的趋势。
Other AbstractThe subjects under two different educational conditions were presented with a multidimensional discrimination task. Their responses were analyzed in terms of nine strategy components, scores on which were analyzed by means of cluster analysis. In combination with the cluster analysis, the qualitative analysis was used to analyze the development of primary school pupils' strategies of artificial concept formation. The results indicate that: (1) Different strategies used by pupils have different influence on their artificial concept formation; (2) The pupils of grade 2 tend to use stimulus-preference and stimulus-describing strategies, while the pupils of grade 4、6 tend to use dimension-checking and focusing strategies to form artificial concepts; (3) Under the different educational conditions, there is a significant difference between the pupils of grade 2 and grade 4, while no significant difference between the pupils of grade 6; and (4) The strategy components change in a complicated manner in the development of the primary school pupils' strategy. With the development of cognitive strategies, some components' scores increase while some increase at first, and then decrease rapidly.
Pages51
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4824
Collection中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
傅增文. 小学生人工概念形成中认知策略发展的研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1998.
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