汉字阅读中的字形、字音、字义及频率效应的研究
陈会钦
学位类型博士
导师林文娟
1998
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院心理研究所
关键词汉字 形音义 无语义阅读 语音通路 语义通路
摘要对中文的阅读机制的研究将加深我们对言语认知过程的理解。和拼音文字不同,汉字是表意文字,一字一音。大多数汉字以其特定的形体在不同程度上直接显示所记录的语素和字的意义。汉字形音义上的独特性使我们很容易在阅读研究中分别检查它们在字阅读识别和图命名中的各种不同效应。为阐明其言语转化过程,解释汉字阅读中存在的各种现象,并比较与其它不同文字阅读机制的异同提供了难得的实验材料。本文分别以正常人和有语义障碍的痴呆病人为被试,系统地研究汉字阅读过程中的字形、字音、字义及频率等效应,为确定汉语的阅读机制提供实验和临床依据。以讲汉语的正常被试为对象,利用类Stroop字图干扰范式,分别研究以高频汉字和低频汉字为干扰项在图命名过程中的字形、字音和字义效应以及各效应发生的相对时间历程。结果表明,汉字在图命名的过程中有明显的字形促进效应、字音促进效应和字义干扰效应。各效应发生的时间历程是不同的,字形促进效应和字音促进效应是独立存在的。在高频汉字的阅读研究中还首次发现了形义交互作用。更为重要的是,在汉字的正常阅读过程中,字音信息的激活速度快于字义信息的激活速度,从广义上讲,这就是正常读者中的无语义阅读现象。以讲汉语的阿尔采木氏病人、血管性痴呆病人及二者兼有的混合性痴呆病人为被试,在研究他们的言语退化特征及其无语义朗读障碍的同时,进一步利用汉字固有的形音义特点及频率和具体度特征,系统地探讨规则与不规则汉字以及一致与不一致汉字在朗读过程中的频率效应和具体度效应。结果表明,讲汉语的痴呆病人可以正确朗读那些他们不能正确命名或字图匹配的图的名字,表现为无语义朗读障碍。而且,他们朗读不规则汉字时容易出现LARC (a legitimate alternative reading of components)错误,即对不规则字的不正确的发音对另一个含有相同部件的汉字来说是正确的,特别是在朗读低频不规则字和低频不一致字时的LARC 错误数明显比朗读高频不规则字和高频不一致字增多,朗读抽象语义的汉字也有选择性的朗读障碍。这些现象说明在不规则汉字的发音过程中,语义通常起着决定性的作用,即低频不规则字的朗读需要语义信息的支持。此外,语义障碍和汉字表层推读联合表现,随着语义障碍的加重,痴呆病人仍能朗读大部分常见的具体汉字词,即仍存在无语义朗读障碍。但朗读低频不规则字和低频不一致字的能力有所下降。汉字的无语义阅读以及低频不规则汉字的朗读需要语义信息的支持的现象。为此,有理由认为,汉字的阅读过程至少涉及两条阅读通路,即从字形表征直接提取语音的直接语音通路和从字形表征通过语义表征提取语音的间接语义通路。并且,这两条通路是相互分离的。
其他摘要Unlike alphabetic languages, Chinese language is ideographical writing system. Each Chinese character is single-syllable and usually has a direct meaning. So Chinese characters are a kind of valuable experimental material used for research on reading and comparisons of the reading mechanism of different language. In this paper, the normal persons and the patients with semantic dementia were respectively scheduled for two parts of experimental studies on the orthographic, phonologic, semantic and frequency effects of reading of Chinese characters. The Stroop-like character-picture interference experimental paradigm was used to investigate the orthographic, phonologic, semantic and frequency effects of Chinese characters on picture naming when they were presented with pictures to normal persons. The results indicated that the orthographic facilitation effect, phonologic facilitation effect, and semantic interference effect occurred at different SOA values. The orthographic and phonologic facilitation effects were independent. It was for the first time shown that the interaction between orthographic variable and semantic variable occurred when the high-frequency Chinese characters were read. Phonologic representation was activated quicker than semantic representation, by comparison of their SOA. Generally, it means that there is reading without meaning in Chinese character among the normal persons. The orthographic, phonologic, semantic, frequency and concrete effects of Chinese characters were further investigated among the dementia patients with DAT(dementia of Alzheimer's type disease) or CVA or both. They all have an impaired semantic memory. The results showed that patients with dementia could read the names of the pictures aloud while they could not name them or match them with a right character correctly. This is reading impairment without meaning in Chinese among the dementia patients. Meanwhile, they had a selective reading impairment and more LARC(a legitimate alternative reading of components) mistakes especially when reading low-frequency irregular, low-frequency inconsistent and abstract Chinese characters. With the patients' semantic impairment developed, their ability to read the pictures names would remain whereas their ability to read low-frequency irregular and low-frequency inconsistency Chinese characters was reduced. These results indicated that low-frequency irregular Chinese characters can be read correctly only when it is supported by their semantic information. Based on the above results of reading without meaning and of reading of low-frequency irregular Chinese characters supported by their semantic information, it is reasonable to suggest that at least two routes are involved in the process of reading Chinese characters. They are direct phonologic route and indirect semantic route; moreover, the two routes are independent.
页数63
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4836
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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GB/T 7714
陈会钦. 汉字阅读中的字形、字音、字义及频率效应的研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1998.
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