表征方式对网上购物信息搜索行为影响的工程心理学实验研究
李江予
学位类型博士
导师张侃
1999
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院心理研究所
学位专业工业心理学
关键词网上购物 系统概貌 行为方式 等级结构 表征方式 虚拟现实
摘要界面因素一直是而且将愈发成为影响网上购物发展的重要因素,但现实中对它的关注与研究仍然十分贫乏。本研究的目的是通过实验研究增进对影响网上购物界面表征的重要工程心理学因素及其关系的理解,为网上购物表征的实践与进一步的研究提供参考依据。本文基于工程心理学的原理,从人(用户)、任务、信息环境三个方面进行分析,认为系统概貌和信息行为模式将对Web的信息活动产生重要影响,而信息系统的表征方式将严重影响系统概貌和信息行为模式的形成,进而影响用户的系统行为成绩。文中据此提出关于系统表征的三维结构模型,说明媒体表征方式、系统等级结构、信息单元对象三个维度间的关系。基于此,文中就网上购物系统虚拟现实形式表征(文中简称为VR)的工程心理学因素,提出了八个研究假设,并通过四个实验分别予以检验:-实验一,从任务成绩、操作误差、总体满意度、脑力负荷等方面,研究三种单一媒体表征方式对系统概貌和信息行为形成的影响。-实验二,研究等级的组合表征方式对用户行为的影响。-实验三,研究VR表征的结构维度特征,其宽度与深度倾向对系统行为的影响。-实验四,基于注意的相关理论,研究VR场景(即信息单元)中对象间的位置结构关系。结果发现:-在结构维度:即在VR表征的等级结构中,其宽度的增加要比深度的增加对用户速度的损害大。用户在宽度较大的结构里尽管速度较慢,但错误率最低。-在等级结构的表征维度:1.等级结构的三种单一媒体表征方式,在任务完成的速度、操作错误率、满意度、脑力负荷等方面均没有统计上的显著差异,但是以图作比喻辅助文本表征的方式在这些方面都是最差的。2.被试在任务的初期和结构等级的第一层,VR形式的表征都比文本形式的慢,但随着任务的发展和等级的深入,VR表征方式的速度加快得最大(即加速度最大)。3.在系统的较高等级,用VR表征要比用文本表征的效果要好,但过多等级的VR形式会增大活动误差;最高等级的表征方式对系统的行为绩效影响最大;而仅在等级结构的中部采用VR形式的表征方式的效果最差。4.单一媒体表征方式的活动误差要大于组合媒体表征方式。5.用户的个体差异对系统信息的表征方式也有影响,在VR方式下,A型行为倾向与错误量有显著的负相关。-在VR场景的表征维度:物理距离与闪动动被试的任务速度影响较大,而概念距离的影响不显著;而自于一致的结构位置、较近的要领距离、闪动目标对象等会增大正确率(但不显著)。本研究虽然基于网上购物的问题与分析,但研究的问题其实也适于其它Web应用。而研究仅考虑了目标明确的搜索任务,而没有考虑其它的任务条件和任务形式,也没有考虑不同任务形式与查询或导航工具间的工程心理学问题。
其他摘要Interface has been becoming a more significant element today which influences the development of shopping on-line greatly. But in practice the attention arisen from society and study made are quite inadequate. Under this circumstance, I focus my study on the purpose of improving understanding of the engineering psychological factors, which definitely will play a crucial role in shopping on-line representation in future, and of the relations between them through the following experimental research. I hope it can give a basic reference to the practical application of shopping on-line representation pattern and continuous study. In current thesis, an analysis was made on the basis of engineering psychology principles from three aspects, i.e. person (users), task and information environment. It was considered that system overview and information behavior model would have great impact on the activities of users on the web and that representation pattern of information system would affect the forming of system overview and behavior pattern and then further after the performances of users in information system. Based on above-mentioned statement, a three-dimensional conceptual model was presented which demonstrates the relations between the crucial factors, which are media representation pattern, system hierarchy and objects in information unit. Thereafter, eight study hypothesis, which are about engineering psychological factors of virtual reality (VR) representation in shopping on-line system, was taken out and four experiments were followed up to testify the hypothesis. -In experiment one, a research was made to study how the three kinds of single media representation pattern influence the forming of system overview and information behavior from the point view of task performance, operating error, overall satisfactory and mental workload etc. -In experiment two, a study of how the combined media representation pattern of system hierarchy influences users' behavior was carried out. -In experiment three, a study of the hierarchy structure feature of VR representation pattern and the tendency of its width and depth to the effects of system behavior was made. -In experiment four, a study of the location relations between different parties in VR scene (information unit) was made. The result is as follows: -During structure dimensional state: Width-increasing caused more damage to the speed of users than depth-increasing in VR representation pattern. Although the performance of subjects was quite slow in wider environment, yet the percentage rate of causing errors was in lowest level. -During hierarchy representation pattern: 1. Between the representation patterns of the three media, no significant differences was found in terms of the speed of fulfilling the task, error rate, satisfactory, mental workload etc. But the pattern with figure- aided gained the worst results on all of these aspects. 2. During primary stage of the task and the first level of the hierarchy, the speed of subjects' performance in VR pattern was slower than that in text pattern. While with developing of the task and going deeper level of the hierarchy, the speed of users' performance in VR representation pattern reached to the highest level. 3. Effects in VR representation pattern was better than that in text pattern in higher level of the system. The representation pattern in highest level has greatest impact on the performance of the system behavior, whereas results of the only VR representation in the middle part of hierarchy would be worst. 4. Activity error in single media representation pattern was more than that in combined media representation pattern. 5. Individual differences among subjects had effects on the representation pattern of the system. During VR environment, behavior tendency of party A had a significant negative correlation to the quantities of errors. -In VR-scene representation: Physical-distance and flash influenced the subjects' task performance greatly, while psychological-distance has no outstanding impact. Subjects' accurate rate of performing increased if objects with same relation were in the same structure position, in the state of close psychological-distance or if the object target flashed (not reliable). Although the article limits the topic only on the present-existing questions and analysis of shopping-on-line, as a matter of fact, it can also apply for other relevant purposes on the web. While the study of this article only gives its emphasis on the researching-task with definite goal, making no consideration of other task conditions and their relations with other navigation tools. So I hope it lay a good start to make continuous research in this areas.
页数99
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4838
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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GB/T 7714
李江予. 表征方式对网上购物信息搜索行为影响的工程心理学实验研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1999.
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