小学儿童空间物体位置编码的实验研究
田学红
学位类型博士
导师方格
1999
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院心理研究所
学位专业认知发展心理学
关键词小学儿童 空间物体位置编码 认知成绩 编码线索
摘要空间物体位置编码是空间认知发展的重要内容之一,也是当前空间认知发展研究的一个热点。空间物体位置编码发展是儿童适应环境的前提,从小培养这种能力可以提高儿童对环境的适应能力,提高儿童的综合素质。本研究以城市小学7,9,11岁儿童为研究对象,以改进的找物范式为研究方法,从构成欧氏几何基本要素--点与线及其关系入手设计了两个研究(研究一:小学儿童对点与点之间关系的编码:研究二:小学儿童对线与线之间关系的编码);共四个实验,探查小学儿童对空间物体位置关系认知发展的过程及制约发展的内外因素。研究结果如下:1)7岁组儿童利用欧氏几何研究对象的基本要素--点与线及其关系对目标物位置编码的认知成绩处于较低水平。9岁组儿童认知成绩处于过渡水平,在点与点之间关系编码任务中表现比较稳定,在线与线之间关系编码任务中表现不稳定。11岁组儿童认知成绩已经达到较高水平。2)在三个年龄阶段,儿童的瑞文标准图形推理能力水平和点与点之间关系编码任务的认知成绩相关,瑞文标准图形推理能力水平高的儿童对点与点之间关系编码的成绩也高。在对线与线之间关系编码研究中,这种相关只在7岁组出现,9岁组和11岁组没有发现这种相关。3)任务变量对儿童的认知成绩有影响。其影响因任务性质不同,也因年龄而异。4)提供编码线索时,儿童的认知成绩有较大的提高。5)问题解决的策略主要有两类,无效策略和有效策略。有效策略有尝试-比较策略和预期-指导策略。随着年龄的增长,使用无效策略的人数逐渐下降,使用有效策略的人数逐渐增加。
其他摘要As a key issue in spatial cognitive developmental research, the coding of object location plays an important role in children's cognitive development. The development of location coding is a precondition for children's adaptation to their environments, and the development of corresponding ability could enhance children's adaptation ability and improve their synthetic diathesis. In this paper, under the improved paradigm of object searching, 7-, 9- and 11-year-olds of urban primary school students were involved in two studies including the total of four experiments. The children were examined upon the ability to encode target location in terms of the distance between two landmarks, three points on a line, the intersection of two lines, or the corresponding points on two parallel lines. The experiments were designed to explore the primary school children's cognitive developmental process upon spatial object location and the correlative restricting factors. From the studies, the following conclusions were drawn: 1)The ability of 7-year-olds to represent target location in terms of the relationships of points and lines is in the inceptive stage and appears unstable. Meanwhile, the same ability of 9-year-olds is in a state of fast developing. The 9-year-olds' performance depends on how difficult the task is. It is stable when task is easy while unstable when task becomes difficult. The ability of 11-year-olds reaches much-developed state and the group's performance is independent of the difficulty of tasks. 2) The correlate coefficient is significant between Raven Standard Inference ability levels and the performance of representing target location in terms of the relationships of points. Those children with good performance in Raven Standard Inference Test have good performance in target location coding. The case is true for all different age groups. As of the task in terms of the relationships of lines, the correlate coefficient between Raven Standard Inference ability levels and children's performance of representing target location is found significant only for the 7-year-olds' group. The case is not true for the groups of 9- and 11-year-olds. It is also found that the correlate coefficient is significant between the sum of performance and Raven Standard Inference ability levels, and that is true for all age groups. 3) Effects from task variable exist upon children's above-mentioned cognitive performance. The effects are different according to different difficulty levels of tasks. Also, they are different according to the different ages. 4) The subjects who failed in the 'no cues for encoding given' situation were able to improve their performances when the cues of encoding were given. Therefore it is possible to improve the primary school children's corresponding cognitive performance by providing the cues of encoding. 5) Two kinds of efficient strategies were used to solve the problem. They are trial-comparison strategy and anticipation-directed strategy.
页数91
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4842
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
田学红. 小学儿童空间物体位置编码的实验研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1999.
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