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老化态度对老年人记忆作业影响的研究
李川云
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor吴振云
1999
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Discipline发展与教育心理学
Keyword老化态度 记忆作业 记忆自我效能 非认知因素 刻板印象
Abstract本研究是一项非认知因素对认知功能老化的影响研究,主要目的是研究老化态度对老年人记忆作业的影响,并试图探索老化态度对记忆作业的作用机制。研究共分三个阶段,包括六项实验。第一阶段是问卷的编制和试用,主要编制老化态度问卷,并对老化态度问卷和自尊量表在老年中进行信效度检验,为研究准备测量工具;第二阶段是静态研究,通过不同老年群体的比较研究,同一老年群体不同非认知因素之间,及其与记忆作业的关系进行路径分析,探索老化态度对记忆作业的作用途径;第三阶段是动态研究,主要研究老化态度的改变(正性、负性)对老年被试记忆作业成绩的影响及其作用机制。主要结果与结论:1.编制的老化态度问卷信、效度良好,结构可分为正、负性两个因子,复测信度和分半今度均达到0.90以上;2.直接思维任务可以有效地改变被试的老化态度,无论是老年被试还是青年被试,进行正性或负性思维后,老化态度均有明显变化,正、负性思维的被试间老化态度得分有显著差异;3.老年人的老化态度对记忆作业有明显影响,不同老化态度人群的静态比较和实验条件下动态改变老化态度都表明,老年人老化态度问卷得分高(正性),记忆自我效能和记忆作业成绩也高;反之(负性),则低;4.老化态度影响记忆作业的机制,在静态条件下,主要通过老化态度和自我效能两条途径发生作用;在动态条件下,还与老年人情绪的改变有关;5.不同非认知因素对心理功能的影响是不同的。本研究发现,自尊与记忆作业无明显相关,而与被试的抑郁得分有关;教育对多个非认知因素和记忆作业都有影响。
Other AbstractIt was a study of the effect of non-cognitive factors on cognitive aging. The purpose of the study was to research the effect of attitude towards aging on memory performance of the elderly, and trying to explore the mechanism of the attitude towards aging on memory performance. The entire study was divided into three phases and included six experiments. The questionnaire of attitude towards aging was compiled in phase 1. Then the validity and reliability of it was tested in the elderly. The self-esteem scale was also tested as above. These prepare the instruments for the study. It was a static study in phase 2. Through comparing the old groups in different environment, analyzing relationship between different non-cognitive factors and memory performance in the old subjects in identical environment, the paths of the effect of the attitude towards aging on memory performance was explored. It was a dynamic study in phase 3. By changing attitude towards aging of the elderly with direct thinking (positive, negative), the effect on memory performance was observed and the mechanism was explored. Main results: 1. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire towards aging were good. Its construct had two factors (positive, negative). Both reliability of retest and split test were over 0.90. 2. Direct thinking task was able to change the attitude towards aging effectively in old or young adults. The scores of the attitudes towards aging between positive and negative thinking subjects were different significantly. 3. The effect of attitude towards aging on memory performance was significant. The results in static or dynamic condition showed that the elderly with higher score of the questionnaire of attitude towards aging (more positive), their memory self-efficacy and memory performance were higher. In the opposite (negative), they were lower. 4. Mechanism of the effect of the attitude towards aging on memory performance: in static condition there were two paths i.e. direct path and through memory self-efficacy; in dynamic condition, besides the two paths, emotion change constituted another path. 5. Different non-cognitive factors have different effect on psychological function. The results of this study found that self-esteem has no significant correlation with memory performance, but correlates with depression; The factor of education has effect on many non-cognitive factors and memory performance.
Pages81
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4844
Collection中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李川云. 老化态度对老年人记忆作业影响的研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1999.
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