相同知识背景下技能之间迁移机制的研究
李亦菲
学位类型博士
导师朱新明
1999
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院心理研究所
学位专业普通心理学
关键词技能之间的迁移 陈述性知识 过程性知识 产生式
摘要80年代后期以来,相同知识背景下技能之间的迁移机制受到认知心理学家的重视。一个影响较大的理论是“共同要素理论“(Singley & Anderson, 1989)。根据这一理论,如果两种技能共用很少的过程性知识,即使它们共用相同的陈述性知识,它们之间也不会产生迁移。虽然这一观点得到一些实验的支持(Neves & Anderson, 1981; McKendree & Anderson, 1987), 但也有研究在共用很少过程性知识的子技能之间发现了大量的迁移,并将这种迁移解释为陈述性知识精细加工的结果(Pennington et al., 1991; 1995)。本研究利用初中几何和初中代数的材料,考察了学习方式(示例学习和文本学习)和被试能力(高、中、低)对相同知识背景下两种子技能之间迁移的影响。在几何中,基于“平行四连形性质定理“两种子技能(“产生证明“和“解释证明“)之间共用较少的过程性知识;在代数里,基于“二次根式乘法知识“的两种子技能(“计算“和“化简“)之间共用较多的过程性知识。主要实验结果如下:1、在“产生证明“和“解释证明“两种子技能之间,没有发现显著的迁移。从被试类型来看:高水平的被试,“解释证明“对“产生证明“产生了负迁移,而“产生证明“对“解释证明“没有迁移;低水平被试,“解释证明“对“产生证明“也产生了负迁移,而“产生证明“对“解释证明“则产生了正迁移;中等水平被试,两种技能之间没有迁移。2、在“计算“和“化简“两种子技能之间,“化简“对“计算“产生了正迁移,而“计算“对“化简“产生了负迁移。从被试的类型来看:高水平的被试,在“计算“和“化简“之间没有迁移;中等水平被试和低水平被试,“化简“对“计算“产生了正迁移,而“计算“对“化简“产生了负迁移。3、对两个领域中的子技能之间的迁移,两种学习方式的影响没有显著差异。显然,这些结果即不能简单地为共用相同的过程性知识,也不能简单地归结为陈述性知识的精细加工,而是必须综合考虑技能的过程性知识之间的关系、陈述性知识精细加工、过程性知识精细加工三种因素的影响。从全体被试来看,技能之间的迁移可以用过程性知识之间的关系来预测和解释;从特定被试来看,必须考虑被试在一种技能的训练过程中,对陈述性知识和过程性知识的精细加工,以及这种加工对与另一种技能有关的陈述性知识和过程性知识的影响;学习方式对技能之间的迁移没有产生影响,是由于它们对陈述性知识的学习效果没有产生影响。以上分析得到口语报告研究的支持。据此,可以获得以下结论:相同知识背景下技能之间的迁移是过程性知识之间的关系、陈述性知识精细加工、过程性知识精细加工三种因素共同作用的结果。
其他摘要Since the middle of 1980's, the mechanisms of transfer of training between cognitive subskills rest on the same body of declarative knowledge has been highly concerned. The dominant theory is theory of common element (Singley & Anderson, 1989) which predict that there will be little or no transfer between subskills within the same domain when knowledge is used in different ways, even though the subskills might rest on a common body of declarative knowledge. This idea is termed as "principle of use specificity of knowledge" (Anderson, 1987). Although this principle has gained some empirical evidence from different domains such as elementary geometry (Neves & Anderson, 1981) and computer programming (McKendree & Anderson, 1987), it is challenged by some research (Pennington et al., 1991; 1995) in which substantially larger amounts of transfer of training was found between substills that rest on a shared declarative knowledge but share little procedures (production rules). Pennington et al. (1995) provided evidence that this larger amounts of transfer are due to the elaboration of declarative knowledge. Our research provide a test of these two different explanation, by considering transfer between two subskills within the domain of elementary geometry and elementary algebra respectively, and the inference of learning method ("learning from examples" and "learning from declarative-text") and subject ability (high, middle, low) on the amounts of transfer. Within the domain of elementary geometry, the two subskills of generating proofs" (GP) and "explaining proofs" (EP) which are rest on the declarative knowledge of "theorems on the characters of parallelogram" share little procedures. Within the domain of elementary algebra, the two subskills of "calculation" (C) and "simplification" (S) which are rest on the declarative knowledge of "multiplication of radical" share some more procedures. The results demonstrate that: 1. Within the domain of elementary geometry, although little transfer was found between the two subskills of GP and EP within the total subjects, different results occurred when considering the factor of subject's ability. Within the high level subjects, significant positive transfer was found from EP to GP, while little transfer was found on the opposite direction (i. e. from GP to EP). Within the low level subjects, significant positive transfer was found from EP to GP, while significant negative transfer was found on the opposite direction. For the middle level subject, little transfer was found between the two subskills. 2. Within the domain of elementary algebra, significant positive transfer was found from S to C, while significant negative transfer was found on the opposite direction (i. e. from C to S), when considering the total subjects. The same pattern of transfer occurred within the middle level subjects and low level subject. Within the high level subjects, no transfer was found between the two subskills. 3. Within theses two domains, different learning methods yield little influence on transfer of training between subskills. Apparently, these results can not be attributed to either common procedures or elaboration of declarative knowledge. A kind of synthetic inspection is essential to construct a reasonable explanation of these results which should take into account the following three elements: (1) relations between the procedures of subskills; (2) elaboration of declarative knowledge; (3) elaboration of procedural knowledge. 排Excluding the factor of subject, transfer of training between subskills can be predicted and explained by analyzing the relations between the procedures of two subskills. However, when considering some certain subjects, the explanation of transfer of training between subskills must include subjects' elaboration of declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge, especially the influence of the elaboration on performing the other subskill. The fact that different learning methods yield little influence on transfer of training between subskills can be explained by the fact that these two methods did not effect the level of declarative knowledge. Protocol analysis provided evidence to support these hypothesis. From this research, we conclude that in order to expound the mechanisms of transfer of training between cognitive subskills rest on the same body of declarative knowledge, three elements must be considered synthetically which include: (1) relations between the procedures of subskills; (2) elaboration of declarative knowledge; (3) elaboration of procedural knowledge.
页数85
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4846
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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李亦菲. 相同知识背景下技能之间迁移机制的研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1999.
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