PSYCH OpenIR  > 中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
Thesis Advisor焦书兰
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Discipline普通心理学
Keyword印象形成 同化效应 对比效应 启动
Other AbstractImpression formation is an important aspect of person perception and has important interpersonal consequences. There are assimilation and contrast effects in impression formation and is still considerable debate regarding the best way to account for them. This present research used trait-implying sentences as priming materials, trait inferences sever as self-generated primes, examined the effect of different trait knowledge in assimilation and contrast effects. Experiment 1 determined the priming and target stimuli of this research by pretest. In experiment 2, participants read trait-implying sentences and resulted in trait inference as self-generated primes, examined the influence of trait activation on impression formation. The results indicated that participants instructed to memorize trait-implying sentences showed assimilation effect, whereas participants instructed to form impression from trait-implying sentences showed contrast effect. Difference to previous studies that emphasized the impact of awareness of the prime in impression formation, this research paid attention to the impact of different trait knowledge that resulted from trait inference. Experiment 3 studied the influence of actor salience on impression formation. The results indicated that when trait-implying sentences that described actors with names and were accompanied with photos of the actors, participants showed contrast under both memorization and impression instructions. Experiment 4 studied the influence of attribution context on assimilation and contrasts. The results showed that contrast ensued when trait-implying sentences were accompanied with the information that suggested a person attribution, whereas assimilation ensued when that information suggested a situation attribution, independent of processing goals. Experiment 5 made a direct test of the effect of different trait knowledge in impression formation. The results discovered that when abstract trait concepts were activated they act as a general interpretation frame in encoding stage, whereas when specific actor-trait links were activated, the activated information is likely to be used as a comparative standard in judgment stage. All studied indicated that there are two types of activated trait knowledge in trait inference: abstract trait concepts versus specific actor-trait links. When trait inference activated abstract trait concepts, the activated information serves as interpretation frame and lead to assimilation effect during impression formation, when trait inference activated specific actor-trait links, the activated information is more likely to be used as a comparative standards and resulted in contrast effects. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanism of impression formation and practical values for interpersonal communication.
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
朱新秤. 印象形成中同化和对比效应研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1999.
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