印象形成中同化和对比效应研究
朱新秤
学位类型博士
导师焦书兰
1999
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院心理研究所
学位专业普通心理学
关键词印象形成 同化效应 对比效应 启动
摘要印象形成是人的知觉的重要方面,具有重要的人际意义。印象形成的过程中存在着同化和对比效应,对此虽然已进行了大量研究,但仍有较大的争论。本研究运用隐含特质句子作为启动材料,通过特质推理产生自我启动,探讨了不同类型的特质知识激活在同化和对比效应产生过程中的作用。实验一确定了本研究中运用的启动刺激和目标刺激材料。在实验二中,被试阅读隐含特质的句子,通过特质推理产生自我启动,研究了特质激活对于随后印象形成的影响。结果表明,记忆组的被试出现同化效应,印象组的被试出现对比效应。与以往研究强调启动意识的解释不同,本研究强调特质推理激活的不同特质知识在同化和对比效应产生中的作用。实验三研究了行动者突显对于印象形成的影响。结果表明,当隐含特质句子中行动者运用真实的姓名并伴随有照片时,在记忆和印象指导语的条件下,被试在随后的印象形成中都出现对比较应。实验四研究了不同归因背景对同化和对比效应的影响。结果发现,当隐含特质的句子伴随的信息导致人的归因时,出现对比较应;当隐含特质的句子伴随的信息导致情境归因时,出现同化效应。实验五对于不同类型特质知识激活在印象形成中的作用进行了直接检验。结果表明,当激活的是抽象的特质概念时,在印象形成的编码阶段起解释作用;当激活的是行动者-特质联结时,在印象形成的判断阶段起比较标准作用。所有的研究都证明,在特质推理的过程中激活的特质知识有两种类型:抽象的特质概念和行动者——特质联结。当特质推理激活的是抽象的特质概念时,在印象形成的编码阶段起解释作用,导致同化效应;当特质推理激活的是行动者-特质联结时,在印象形成的判断阶段起比较标准作用,导致对比效应。本研究的结果对于了解印象形成的机制具有重要的理论意义,对于人际交往具有实际的应用价值。
其他摘要Impression formation is an important aspect of person perception and has important interpersonal consequences. There are assimilation and contrast effects in impression formation and is still considerable debate regarding the best way to account for them. This present research used trait-implying sentences as priming materials, trait inferences sever as self-generated primes, examined the effect of different trait knowledge in assimilation and contrast effects. Experiment 1 determined the priming and target stimuli of this research by pretest. In experiment 2, participants read trait-implying sentences and resulted in trait inference as self-generated primes, examined the influence of trait activation on impression formation. The results indicated that participants instructed to memorize trait-implying sentences showed assimilation effect, whereas participants instructed to form impression from trait-implying sentences showed contrast effect. Difference to previous studies that emphasized the impact of awareness of the prime in impression formation, this research paid attention to the impact of different trait knowledge that resulted from trait inference. Experiment 3 studied the influence of actor salience on impression formation. The results indicated that when trait-implying sentences that described actors with names and were accompanied with photos of the actors, participants showed contrast under both memorization and impression instructions. Experiment 4 studied the influence of attribution context on assimilation and contrasts. The results showed that contrast ensued when trait-implying sentences were accompanied with the information that suggested a person attribution, whereas assimilation ensued when that information suggested a situation attribution, independent of processing goals. Experiment 5 made a direct test of the effect of different trait knowledge in impression formation. The results discovered that when abstract trait concepts were activated they act as a general interpretation frame in encoding stage, whereas when specific actor-trait links were activated, the activated information is likely to be used as a comparative standard in judgment stage. All studied indicated that there are two types of activated trait knowledge in trait inference: abstract trait concepts versus specific actor-trait links. When trait inference activated abstract trait concepts, the activated information serves as interpretation frame and lead to assimilation effect during impression formation, when trait inference activated specific actor-trait links, the activated information is more likely to be used as a comparative standards and resulted in contrast effects. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanism of impression formation and practical values for interpersonal communication.
页数98
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4858
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
朱新秤. 印象形成中同化和对比效应研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1999.
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