元音和复合音识别中噪音分离机制的实验研究
王净
学位类型硕士
导师杨玉芳
1998
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院心理研究所
学位专业普通心理学
关键词元音 谐波失调 相位 噪音
摘要谐波的谐调性是元音的一个重要物理特性,它对元音的音高和音质都有影响。当某个谐波失调时,这个谐波对元音的贡献将减小,听觉系统便会把它们(噪音)分离出去,其作用原理就象筛子一样,Duifhuis等(1982)把这种加工机制称作“谐波筛”(harmonic sieve)。针对单个谐波而言,谐波产生分离的临界失调比例为3%-8%。当两个或两个以上谐波同时产生失调时,谐波筛是怎样把噪音(失调谐波)分离出去的?其失调临界值将怎样变化呢?谐波失调效应取决于哪些因素呢?这些问题目前尚不清楚。本文用配对比较方法,从失调谐波的数量对谐波筛的影响(实验一)、失调谐波的位置效应(实验二)以及谐波相位与其失调幅度之间的相互作用(实验三)等三个方面对失调谐波的分离机制进行探讨。研究结果表明,(1)多个谐波同时失调时,其失调效应要比单个谐波失调时所产生的失调效应更强。即谐波失调存在累积效应;(2)谐波位置不同,其失调效应也存在差异。这种差异与谐波和共振峰之间的距离有关,谐波越靠近共振峰,其失调效应越明显,但对复合音而言,则是高次谐波的失调效应比低次谐波的失调效应更弱;(3)相位效应不明显,但谐波相位对其失调效应产生间接影响,这种影响与谐波的起始振幅有关。当相位为π/2和3/2π时,失调效应更加明显;而当相位为0和π时,失调效应并不明显。
其他摘要Harmonicity is one of the important features of a vowel. It makes great contribution to pitch and quality of vowel. However, contribution of a mistuned harmonic will decrease as it is mistuned increasingly. A mistuned harmonic will be segregated as noise from complex by auditory system, which was called harmonic sieve (Duifhuis, 1982). According to Darwin (1986) and Moore et al (1985), the critical value of one mistuned harmonic would be segregated from vowel or complex is 3% to 8%--Harmonic Mistuned Effect (HME). Further questions need to be answered. For example, how will the harmonic sieve separate noise or whether the critical value change when more than two harmonics are mistuned? And what affect the HME? Three experiments were conducted to these questions. Experiment one was dealt with the number of mistuned harmonics as a factor affecting the HME. The position effect of HME was concerned in experiment two. The last experiment considered the relationship between HME and phase of the mistuned harmonic. The results indicated that (1) the HME was much greater when more than two harmonics were mistuned than only one harmonic was mistuned; (2) harmonic position played an important role in HME, the higher the harmonic was, the less HME was found for the complex, and the closer to formant the harmonic stood, the more significant HME existed; and (3) phase did not affect the HME significantly, however, its indirect contribution still existed, which related to the starting amplitude of a mistuned harmonic.
页数40
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4862
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
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王净. 元音和复合音识别中噪音分离机制的实验研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1998.
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