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比较型算术应用题一致性效应的实验研究
史伟
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor张梅玲
1999
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Discipline教育心理学
Keyword比较型算术应用题 一致性效应 认知风格 冲动型-思索型 工作记忆
Abstract以往的研究都显示出,一致的比较型应用题(如:小红有5个苹果,小明比小红多2个,小明有几个?)的错误率要显著低于不一致的比较型应用题(如:小红有5个苹果,她比小明多2个,小明有几个?),这种现象被称为一致性效应。关于一致性效应产生的原因,不同的研究者从不同的角度给予了解释,其中R. E. Mayer的直接转换策略和问题模型策略是比较有代表性的一种解释。本研究通过94位小学三年级被试,在实验1中对Mayer的观点进行了验证性实验研究,其结果不支持两种策略模型方面的解释。在实验2中我们没有发现不一致问题解决错误和冲动型认知风格之间的关系。在实验3中我们发现不一致问题解决正确者和错误者的工作记忆容量有显著差异,由此我们推测工作记忆可能是导致一致性效应产生的重要原因。
Other AbstractAs former research shown, the error rate of consistent compare word problem (such as: Mary has 5 apples, Tom has 2 apples more than Mary, how many apples does Tom has?) is much lower than the rate of inconsistent compare word problem (such as: Mary has 5 apples, she has 2 apples more than Tom, how many apples does Tom has?). This difference of error rate is named as Consistency Effect. There are different explanations about why consistency effect happens, one of them is R.E.Mayer's opinion about two kinds of problem solving strategies. As Mayer's opinion, unsuccessful problem solvers make mistakes on inconsistent problem because they use Direct Translation Strategy, problem solvers who use Problem Model Strategy will not make such kind of mistakes. In this study, three experiments with 3~(rd) graders investigate reasons for the consistency effect. The results of experiment 1 do not support the explanation of Mayer's theory of two kinds of strategy. Experiment 2 shows that there is no relation between inconsistent problem error and Impulsivity cognitive style. Experiment 3 reveals that the working memory capacity of successful inconsistent problem solvers is significant larger than the capacity of unsuccessful solvers. It is supposed that working memory could be an important factor contributing for the consistency effect.
Pages24
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4870
Collection中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
史伟. 比较型算术应用题一致性效应的实验研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1999.
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