PSYCH OpenIR  > 中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
Thesis Advisor林仲贤
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Discipline认知发展
Keyword情节记忆 来源记忆 内容记忆 语义记忆 知觉表征系统 年老化 焦虑
Other AbstractIt is well established that memory functioning deteriorates with advancing age. However, research indicates that the magnitude of age-related memory deficits varies across different types of memory, and broad individual differences can be observed in the rate and timing of memory aging. The general aim of this study was to investigate the selectivity and variability of memory functioning in relation to anxiety. Firstly, memory effectiveness was assessed in episodic memory tasks with reality monitoring and external source monitoring paradigms, semantic memory tasks referred to general knowledge and word fluency, and perceptual priming task reflected in word completion. According to the scores on trait version of STAI, the high-trait and low-trait anxious subjects were screened respectively from young and old participants matched for educational level. Secondly, based on the results of the first part, concurrent primary and secondary tasks with probe technique assessing spare processing capacity were used to explore the relation between memory efficiency and anxiety. The first main findings were that: (a) there were no age-related differences in semantic memory assessed by general knowledge and PRS, whereas age effects were observed in episodic memory and semantic memory assessed by word fluency with stringent time restraints. (b) Furthermore, comparison of age-related deficits in source and item was not related to the presentation ways and encoding effort for source, but was affected by types of source. Specifically, memory was more sensitive to aging than item memory in external source monitoring processes involved in discriminating two external sources (i.e., female vs. male voices), but not in reality monitoring processes in discriminating between internal and external sources (i.e., acting vs. listening). The second main findings were that: (a) Anxiety had no effects on the effectiveness and efficiency of semantic memory in recall of general knowledge and PRS, but impaired those of semantic memory in word fluency. (b) The effects of anxiety on episodic memory were different between the old and the young. Both the effectiveness and the efficiency of episodic memory of the old were affected adversely by anxiety. More importantly, source recall in external source monitoring processes was observed to be more vulnerable to anxiety than item memory. The effectiveness of episodic memory of the young was relatively unrelated to anxiety, while anxiety might have adverse effect on their memory efficiency. These results indicated that: First, the selectivity of age-related memory deficits existed not only between memory systems, but also within episodic memory system. The tendency to forget the source even when the fact was retained in external source monitoring was suggested to be a specific feature of cognitive aging. Second, anxiety had adverse impact on the individual differences in memory aging, and mediated partial age-related differences in episodic memory performance.
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李娟. 记忆年老化与焦虑[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2000.
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