记忆年老化与焦虑
李娟
学位类型博士
导师林仲贤
2000
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院心理研究所
学位专业认知发展
关键词情节记忆 来源记忆 内容记忆 语义记忆 知觉表征系统 年老化 焦虑
摘要已有研究发现记忆功能随增龄减退是认知老化过程的显著表现,但是这种减退趋势在各种记忆中表现不同(选择性),而且其出现的时间和进程在老年群体中并不相同(变异性),本研究旨在探讨记忆年老化过程中的这种选择性和变异性及基与焦虑之间的关系。首先,考察了年龄、焦虑与记忆效果三者之间的关系。记忆测验涉及情节、语义和知觉表征三个长时认知记忆系统,年龄变量设置条件匹配的青年和老年两个水平,在各年龄组中选取了高、低特质焦虑者为实验对象。分别通过事实监控和外部来源监控考察了情节记忆系统中的内容记忆和来源记忆,采用一般知识测验和词语流畅性测验考察了语义记忆系统,通过补笔测验考察了知觉表征系统。其次,在此基础上,进一步采用范式与探测技术相结合探讨了焦虑与记忆效率之间的关系。研究发现:首先,基于一般知识的语义记忆和知觉表征系统中不存在年龄差异,但老年组的情节记忆和有严格时间限定的词义记忆明显比青年组差。来源记忆与内容记忆中年龄差异的比较与来源呈现方式和来源记忆意识性(对来源编码的努力程度)无关,但受来源性质的影响。在事实监控任务中未曾发现两类记忆中的年龄效应存在差异,而在外部来源监控任务中发现来源记忆对年老化更为敏感。其次,焦虑对青年和老年组基于一般知识的语义记忆和知觉表征系统的记忆效果和记忆效率均无影响,而对有严格时间限定的语义记忆的效果和效率均有不利影响。焦虑对情节记忆的影响存在年龄差异:对老年组情节记忆效果和效率均有干扰作用,而且在外部来源监控任务中对来源记忆的影响比内容记忆更大;焦虑对青年组的情节记忆效果几乎没有影响,但是有可能降低其情节记忆效率。上述结果表明:与年龄相关的记忆受损的选择性不仅表现于记忆系统之间,而且在情节记忆系统内部也存在。来源记忆中的年龄差异不仅仅是一般情节记忆(内容记忆)能力随增龄而下降的反映,而是记忆年老化的一种特殊表现。焦虑是造成情节记忆年老化过程中个体差异的影响因素之一,而且调节情节记忆的年龄差异。
其他摘要It is well established that memory functioning deteriorates with advancing age. However, research indicates that the magnitude of age-related memory deficits varies across different types of memory, and broad individual differences can be observed in the rate and timing of memory aging. The general aim of this study was to investigate the selectivity and variability of memory functioning in relation to anxiety. Firstly, memory effectiveness was assessed in episodic memory tasks with reality monitoring and external source monitoring paradigms, semantic memory tasks referred to general knowledge and word fluency, and perceptual priming task reflected in word completion. According to the scores on trait version of STAI, the high-trait and low-trait anxious subjects were screened respectively from young and old participants matched for educational level. Secondly, based on the results of the first part, concurrent primary and secondary tasks with probe technique assessing spare processing capacity were used to explore the relation between memory efficiency and anxiety. The first main findings were that: (a) there were no age-related differences in semantic memory assessed by general knowledge and PRS, whereas age effects were observed in episodic memory and semantic memory assessed by word fluency with stringent time restraints. (b) Furthermore, comparison of age-related deficits in source and item was not related to the presentation ways and encoding effort for source, but was affected by types of source. Specifically, memory was more sensitive to aging than item memory in external source monitoring processes involved in discriminating two external sources (i.e., female vs. male voices), but not in reality monitoring processes in discriminating between internal and external sources (i.e., acting vs. listening). The second main findings were that: (a) Anxiety had no effects on the effectiveness and efficiency of semantic memory in recall of general knowledge and PRS, but impaired those of semantic memory in word fluency. (b) The effects of anxiety on episodic memory were different between the old and the young. Both the effectiveness and the efficiency of episodic memory of the old were affected adversely by anxiety. More importantly, source recall in external source monitoring processes was observed to be more vulnerable to anxiety than item memory. The effectiveness of episodic memory of the young was relatively unrelated to anxiety, while anxiety might have adverse effect on their memory efficiency. These results indicated that: First, the selectivity of age-related memory deficits existed not only between memory systems, but also within episodic memory system. The tendency to forget the source even when the fact was retained in external source monitoring was suggested to be a specific feature of cognitive aging. Second, anxiety had adverse impact on the individual differences in memory aging, and mediated partial age-related differences in episodic memory performance.
页数94
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4896
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
李娟. 记忆年老化与焦虑[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2000.
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