不同学习策略对改变学生物理要领错误的影响
潘颖秋
学位类型硕士
导师刘善循
2000
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院心理研究所
学位专业发展与普通心理学
关键词概念错误 优秀生 困难生 自我解释 反省学习
摘要本研究从陈述性和程序性知识的角度对优秀生和困难生学习牛顿力学概念时出现在概念错误进行了比较研究,并探索了自我解释学习策略和反省学习对改变学生错误概念的影响和作用,实验结果表明:1. 困难生概念的陈述性和程序性知识错误明显的比优秀生多。困难生概念的程序性知识的错误明显的多于陈述性知识的错误。优秀生的陈述性知识错误和程序性知识错误之间没有明显的差异。2. 在概念错误类型的分布上,被试的陈述性知识错误更多的集中在摩擦力和加速度的概念上;程序性知识错误在各概念之间没有明显差异,错误多表现为概念矢量方向的判断和概念性的理解错误上。3. 在概念陈述性知识的表征特点上,优秀生对概念的理解概括水平比困难生高,困难生的概念理解具有明显的情景性,具体性等特点。4. 问题解决策略的比较结果表明,优秀生更多的运用分析策略,依据物理的概念和基本定律对问题进行合理正确的分析;困难生解题时更侧重问题的字面意义,依据问题的情景进行假想推测或分析中错误的运用物理概念和定律。5. 自我解释策略能有效的帮助学生改变概念的理解错误。反省学习能够在一定程度上促进学生对概念错误码率的纠正但作用效果不是很明显。
其他摘要In the field of misconceptions research, previous research was focused mainly on the effect of naive concepts on the learning of scientific concept. In this study, from the viewpoint of declarative and procedural knowledge, conceptual errors on Newtonian mechanics were studied comparatively between high-performance and low-performance students. Furthermore, the effects of self-explain learning strategies and reflective learning on the change of subjects' conceptual errors were explored. The result of experiments indicated: 1. There was significant difference in the number of conceptual errors of declarative and procedural knowledge between high-performance students and low-performance students. And Low-performance students made more conceptual errors of procedural knowledge than that of declarative knowledge. For high-performance students, there was no distinct difference between these two kinds of errors. 2. In the distribution of conceptual errors, most errors of declarative knowledge were mainly focused on the understanding of concepts of friction and acceleration. The errors of procedure knowledge most errors concentrated on the judgment of vector direction and the conceptual understanding. 3. Compared with high-performance students, the representation of conceptual declarative knowledge of low-performance students is less complex, more concrete and context bound. 4. The comparative analysis of problem-solving strategies showed: high-performance students preferred to apply analytic strategy, solving problems based on physical concepts and principles; low-performance students preferred to use context strategy, solving problem according to the literal meaning of problems, subjective and groundless presumption and wrong concepts and principles. 5. Self-explain strategies can help students correct their conceptual errors effectively. Reflective learning could help students to correct the concept errors in some degree, but the distinct effect was not observed.
页数43
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4908
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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潘颖秋. 不同学习策略对改变学生物理要领错误的影响[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2000.
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