中学生主观幸福感与其影响因素的研究
其他题名Research on Subjective Well-Being of Middle School Students and its Influential Factors
丁新华
学位类型博士
导师王极盛
2003-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业发展与教育心理学
关键词中学生 主观幸福感 家庭环境 生活事件 个性
摘要
主观幸福感是个体依据自己设定的标准对其生活质量所作的整体评价。主观幸福感一般包括生活满意度、积极情感和消极情感三个维度。本研究在对我国中学生的幸福观进行初步调查的基础上,构建了中学生主观幸福感量表,并应用该量表对我国中学生主观幸福感状况及与家庭环境、生活事件和个性影响因素之间的关系进行了探讨,构建了中学生主观幸福感与其主要影响因素的关系模型。主要研究结论如下:
(1) 构建的中学生主观幸福感量表分为两部分,即总体幸福感量表和多维生活满意度量表。经检验表明,总体幸福感量表和多维生活满意度量表具有较好的信度和效度。
(2) 中学生主观幸福感的整体平均水平较高,但仍有一定比例的中学生主观幸福感水平较低。随着年级的增高,中学生的主观幸福感水平逐渐降低。中学生的主观幸福感存在明显的性别差异,女生在总体幸福感、生活满意度、家庭满意度、学习满意度、同伴交往满意度和生活条件满意度上均显著高于男生。
(3) 家庭环境与中学生的主观幸福感关系密切,家庭亲密度和适应性均与主观幸福感显著正相关,家庭亲密度对主观幸福感有较好的预测作用。生活事件各因子和总分均与中学生的主观幸福感显著负相关,学习压力和人际压力对主观幸福感有较好的预测作用。
(4) 中学生的个性因素与主观幸福感关系密切,外向性、神经质、自尊、控制感、自我效能感、应对方式与主观幸福感显著相关,神经质、外向性、自尊、控制感、自我效能感、积极型应对方式对中学生主观幸福感有不同程度的预测作用,其中自尊、神经质和解决问题应对方式的作用尤为突出;高幸福感的中学生具有外向性、低神经质、高自尊、高自我效能、内控倾向、解决问题、求助和合理化积极型应对方式使用较多的个性特征。
(5) 家庭环境通过个性和生活事件间接影响中学生的主观幸福感,家庭环境对个性的影响作用大于对生活事件的影响作用;主观幸福感受个性的直接影响作用较大,受生活事件的直接影响作用较小,生活事件还通过个性因素对主观幸福感有间接的影响作用。
本研究首次全面了解了我国中学生主观幸福感的基本状况,初步揭示了影响中学生主观幸福感的诸多主客观因素之间的关系,这既对丰富和深化青少年主观幸福感的研究具有一定的理论意义,同时也对改善和提高青少年的生活质量具有重要的实践意义。
其他摘要

Subjective well-being (SWB) refers to people’s evaluations of their lives and it consists of three dimensions: life satisfaction, positive emotion and negative emotion. Based on a pre-investigation on middle school students’ cognition and comprehension to SWB, the present study is intended to design and administer Middle School Students’ Subjective Well-Being Scale and aims to explore SWB in middle school students as well as the main impact factors which includes family environment, life events and personality. In addition, the structure model between SWB and its main impact factors is built and summary of Findings for this Study can be drawn as follows:

(1) The Middle School Students’ Subjective Well-Being Scale is designed to contain two parts: The Total Subjective Well-Being Scale and The Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale. The Middle School Students’ Subjective Well-Being Scale has been proved of high reliability and validity.

(2) In general the level of middle school students’ SWB is a little higher than mean level on the whole. Neverthelessa small proportion of students are testified to be low in SWB. A characteristic in grades has been found in development of SWB in middle school studentswhich concretely exhibits that level of SWB is proved to be in a gradual decrease while grade goes up. And significant sex differences are also revealed to be existing in total SWB, life satisfaction, family satisfaction, study satisfaction, friend satisfaction, live conditions satisfactionwith female subjects significantly higher than male counterparts.

(3) Family environment is believed to be significantly related to SWB in middle school students, degree of familiarity is validated to be significant predictor to SWBsimilarly stress from studying and interpersonal intercourse are also among significant predictors to SWB. Whereas the stressed life events are born out to be negative significantly related to SWB.

  (4) Personality factors are intimately tied to SWB in middle school students. Extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, self-efficacy, locus of control and active coping styles are significant predictors to SWB. In all these personality traits, self-esteem, neuroticism, problem resolving are the strongest predictors to SWB. The present study indicates that students with high scores in SWB are generally characterized to be of such personal features as extraversion, lower neuroticism, high self-esteem, self-efficacy and internal control as well. Resorting to problem resolving, seeking help and self-regulation coping strategies are their usual ways when dealing with difficulties.

  (5) It is proposed by the present study that family environment indeed influences SWB with mediated effect by life events and personality. The results concludes that family environment deals more effect on personality than on life events while personality inflicts more effect on SWB than life events do. In additionlife events influence personality directly.

This present research provides a general status of Chinese middle school student’ SWB and inquires the relationship between SWB and objective and subjective influential factors. In additionthis study is confirmed to take on the theoretical significance to enrich research on adolescents’ SWB and practical significance which is constructive to improve life quality of adolescents. 
学科领域发展心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/7326
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
丁新华. 中学生主观幸福感与其影响因素的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2003.
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