视觉空间注意密度调控机制的事件相关电位研究
高文斌
学位类型博士
导师魏景汉
2002-04
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业生物心理学
关键词视觉空间注意 注意范围 非意识 注意密度 事件相关电位
摘要本研究以健康青年人为被试,通过事件相关电位和行为学方法,采用“固定位置视觉注意范围提示”的实验模式,分离了注意方位与注意范围因素的影响,研究了视觉注意范围因素对视觉搜索任务的作用,观察到了注意条件下量的变化引起P2相应变化的新现象,提出了“聚光原理”以说明视觉空间注意密度调控的脑机制。本研究共进行了六项实验,分别研究了位置提示与汉字提示下的视觉注意范围脑机制及其差异,初步探讨了非意识注意范围提示信息的加工机制,并通过二级提示模式深入分析了视觉注意范围的动态调控机制。综合各项实验结果如下:①位置提示与汉字提示下,靶刺激诱发的头颅前部P2成分与注意范围大小密切相关;但当注意范围超过一定程度时,P2波幅不再随之改变。②上述两种提示条件下,靶刺激诱发的P1、N1成分与注意范围因素无关。③在同等提示范围时,汉字性提示诱发的头颅前部N1波幅显著大于位置性提示条件,而位置性提示下靶刺激诱发的头颅后部P2的波幅显著大于汉字性提示条件。④在二级提示条件下:注意范围由大变小与注意小范围不变相比,前者条件下P2波幅增大;注意范围由小变大与注意大范围不变相比,前者条件下P2波幅减小。⑤在有意识提示、非意识提示和无提示条件下,识别靶刺激的RT依次延长;有意识提示与非意识提示条件下,小范围与大范围靶刺激诱发的P2波幅有显著性差异,而无提示条件时无此效应。本研究通过新的实验模式,在注意量研究领域开始进行了一系列实验,提出了新的“注意密度”概念。实验结果表明:视觉注意范围与注意方位在视觉信息加工中是串行的,而且两者调控机制不同。前者是注意量的调节,表现在ERP上为P2调节效应;后者反映的是注意与非注意的差异,表现在ERP上为P1、N1的增益效应。视觉注意集中在一定范围内能够引起一定的注意密度,它随着注意范围的扩大而减小。视觉注意密度可以反映在靶刺激诱发的P2波幅上,在一定范围内,P2波幅随着注意密度的减小而减小。当转换注意范围大小时,P2波幅也会有相应调节。非意识的范围提示可以引起视觉注意范围的启动效应,非意识提示的信息可以加工到注意范围的深度。汉字提示引起的内源性定向与位置提示引起的外源性定向相比,前者的信息加工需要较长时间,依赖于“top-down”机制,其提示信息较径直的到额叶进行加工。
其他摘要 This study investigated the effect of the visual spatial attention scale cues by event-related potentials (ERPs) and the simple reaction time (RT) among young healthy participants. Six experiments were conducted basing on “the paradigm of visual attentive region cue on fixed location”, which could separate the attentive direction fact from the attention scale factor. A new phenomenon was observed that the P2 component varied correspond to the quantity of attention. Furthermore, the principle of focusing light was brought forward to illuminate the brain control mechanisms of visual attention density. A serial of experiments was conducted to investigate the brain mechanism of visual attention scale with the location cue and Chinese character cue, and the processing of the unconscious visual attentive scale cue. The dynamic control mechanism of the visual attention scale was studied by the two-level location cues. The general results of the experiments were as follows. ①With both the location cue and Chinese character cue, the target evoked P2 amplitude on the anterosuperior scale was related to the attentive scale. Within a certain region, the P2 amplitude decreased when the attentive region enlarged, however, it didn’t decreased when the attentive region exceeded a degree. ②With both the location cue and Chinese character cue, the target evoked P2 and N1 components were unrelated to the visual attention scale. ③In the same attention scale, the location cue evoke N1 amplitude on the anterosuperior scale was smaller than Chinese character cue evoked, and the location cued target evoked P2 amplitude on the inferoposterior scale was larger than Chinese character cued target evoked. ④The second-level cue evoked P2 amplitude changed when the attentive scale varied. The P2 amplitude under the condition that attention scale changed from large to small was larger than that under the attentive small scale unchanged condition. The P2 amplitude under the condition that attention scale changed from small to large was smaller than that under the attention large scale unchanged condition. ⑤Under the conscious, unconscious and no cues condition, the RT prolonged in turn. With the conscious and unconscious cues, the target evoked P2 amplitude had significant difference between the small and large attention scale, however, this effect was absent in on cue condition.The present study made a progress in the field of attentive quantity through a new paradigm and defined a new concept ‘attention density’. Such conclusions could be educed that the processing of attention direction and attention scale were serial in visual information process, and the control mechanisms of each factor were different. The former adjusted the attention quantity with the P2 effect, while the later reflected the difference between attention and unattention with the gain effect of P1 and N1. A degree of attention density was caused when the visual attention was focused within a region. It decreased when the attention region extended within a certain scale. The attention density could be reflected on the P2 amplitude, which decreased when the attention density decreased within a certain degree. And the P2 amplitude would adjust when the attention scale changed. The unconscious visual scale cues elicited the priming effect of visual attention scale, and the processing of unconscious cues reached the level of cued region size. Comparing the endogenous orienting evoked by Chinese character cue with the exogenous orienting evoked by location cue, the former need more time to process the cue information depending on the ‘top-down’ mechanism, and it reached the frontal lobe more straightly.
学科领域认知神经科学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/7327
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
高文斌. 视觉空间注意密度调控机制的事件相关电位研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2002.
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