情绪加工负性偏向的事件相关电位研究
黄宇霞
学位类型博士
导师罗跃嘉
2005-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业基础心理学
关键词情绪 负性偏向 ERP 自动加工 控制性加工
其他摘要行为学研究揭示人对负性事物有一种特殊的敏感性,人们倾向于将注意力优先投向负性内容,但到目前为止,关于负性偏向还有许多问题尚未明确。比如负性偏向究竟发生在情绪信息加工的哪个时间段,它仅仅是一种注意偏向还是包括了好几种过程,其心理、生理机制是什么,等等。带着这些问题,本研究进行了三项ERP实验。实验1探讨负性偏向的时程问题;实验2以线索化范式研究在内隐任务中的负性偏向;实验3采用情绪启动范式,分别研究意识阈上和阈下条件下的情绪负性偏向。实验以正常大学生为被试,所用刺激材料来自国际情绪图片系统和课题组编制的中国情绪图片系统。所得结果如下:1.      观察P2LPCLRP可知,负性偏向可以发生在信息加工的多个时间段,包括较早的注意定向阶段,稍晚的分析评价阶段以及随后的反应准备阶段。2.      在内隐任务中,有效提示和无效提示下均发现负性刺激引起较大的P2P3波幅。3.      意识阈下呈现的负性刺激引起较大的P2,意识阈上的负性刺激引起较大的P2LPC。阈下情绪刺激具有情绪启动效应,阈上刺激则未观察到这种现象。4.      综合三项实验结果可以看到,情绪加工的自动过程和控制性过程在情绪负性偏向的产生和调节中发挥着各自的作用。5.      情绪加工中大多数时候右半球较为活跃,但研究中也观察到了愉悦度特异性偏侧化现象。

综上,负性偏向包括注意偏向、评价偏向和反应启动偏向等过程,这种现象可以发生在心理资源非常有限的情况下,自动加工与控制性加工机制共同掌控着这些过程。

; Considerable evidence from behavioral studies has indicated that people have a kind of special sensitivity toward negative things. Among all kinds of contents, people intend to pay attention to those negative ones preferentially. It is still unclear that when does this negativity bias occur in the information processing stream, is it only a kind of attentional bias or perhaps it includes several components, and what is the mechanism that manipulates this phenomenon? Wondering these questions, three ERP experiments were carried out in normal undergraduates. Experiment 1 aimed to explore the temporal course of negativity bias. Experiment 2 applied the cue-target paradigm to study the questions in an implicit task. In Experiment 3, the affective prime paradigm was used to discuss the negativity bias under conscious/unconscious conditions. The experimental stimuli were from IAPS (International Affective Picture System) and CAPS (Chinese Affective Picture System) that was brought out by our research group. The results were as the following:1.      Negativity bias could occur in several temporal stages in information processing stream, which were attentional orienting stage, evaluative stage and reaction readiness stage, indexed by P2, LPC and LRP respectively.2.      In the implicit task, it was observed that negative stimuli elicited larger P2 and P3 than positive and neutral ones under both valid and invalid conditions. 3.      When stimuli were presented unconsciously, negative contents induced larger P2. In conscious situations, P2 and LPC elicited by negative stimuli were lager than that by positive and neutral ones. Unconscious stimuli had the affective prime effect while conscious primes did not take on the effect.4.      According to the three results mentioned above, it could be concluded that automatic mechanism and controlled mechanism both exerted effects in the generation and regulation of negativity bias, although they had different functional characters.5.      According to the voltage maps, right hemisphere seemed more active in the emotional processing in most time. But the valence lateralization was also observed in the present research.Above all, negativity bias is composed by several psychological processes. It can occur even when only very limited resources can be recruited. The automatic process and the controlled process manipulate this phenomenon.
学科领域认知神经科学 ; 情绪心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/7328
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
黄宇霞. 情绪加工负性偏向的事件相关电位研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2005.
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