PSYCH OpenIR  > 中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
Alternative TitleChildren’s Cognitive Development of Pretence
Thesis Advisor方格
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline认知发展心理学
Keyword儿童 心理理论 假装 知识 意图 元表征
Abstract儿童对假装的认知是近年来心理理论领域里的一个热点问题。迄今为止,关于儿童对假装的认知发展过程还没有系统的研究。该研究通过临床法分三个部分系统探查了学前3-6岁与小学8岁儿童对假装的认知发展过程、认知特点及制约因素。研究一探查了在玩具、替代物、虚构物三种假装支持物条件下3-5岁儿童对假装的辨认和对假装者心理的推断,研究二和研究三分别探查了3-6岁的学前和8岁的小学儿童对知识和意图在假装中的作用的认知。结果发现:1)大部分3-5岁儿童已能辨认假装。对假装心理的推断有随年龄的增长而提高的趋势,3岁儿童对假装心理的认知仍处于萌芽阶段,4岁到5岁是一个快速发展阶段,5岁儿童已逐步形成对假装心理的认知,表现出元表征能力;2儿童对意图在假装中的作用的认知是随年龄的增长而提高的。5岁以前的学前儿童还不能认识到意图在假装中的作用,6岁学前儿童能初步认识到意图在假装中的作用,但这种认知还不稳定,易受外显动作影响,8岁儿童对意图在假装中的作用的认知达到较为稳定的认知水平;儿童对知识在假装里的作用的认知发展过程表现为:在无外显动作条件下,5岁儿童能认识到知识在假装中的作用;有外显动作条件下,6岁学前儿童已基本能认识到知识在假装中的作用,但这种认知还不稳定,易受外显动作的影响;8岁儿童已能把知识与外显动作整合起来,形成较为成熟的假装概念;在意图、知识与动作冲突条件下,学前儿童对知识在假装中的作用的认知滞后于对意图在假装中的作用的认知; 3)在假装情境下与非假装情境下学前儿童的元表征能力表现的早晚不同。在非假装情境下4岁儿童就表现出元表征能力,而在假装情境下要到5岁才表现出来; 43-5岁儿童对假装的辨认和对假装者心理的推断均受假装支持物的影响。对假装的辨认在虚构物条件下最容易,在玩具条件下最难;替代物条件下对假装者心理的推断易于虚构物条件下对假装者心理的推断; 3岁和4岁儿童对意图在假装中的作用的认知成绩受任务难度的影响;3-6岁的学前儿童对知识在假装中的作用的认知成绩也受任务难度的影响;53-5岁儿童主要倾向于从外显的动作和情境特征来认识假装;部分学前儿童的假装概念还存在混淆不清的现象,他们不能把描述客观事物或事件状态的“假的”与描述心理状态的“假装”区分开来。
Other AbstractChildren’s cognitive development of pretence is a hotspot in theory of mind. Up to now, there isn’t a systematical research on children’s cognitive development of pretence. This study investigated 3- to 6-year-old preschoolers’ and 8-year-old elementary schoolers’s cognitive developmental procedure, characteristics and affected factors on pretence with three experiments. Experiment 1 investigated 3- to 5-year-olds’ recognition of pretense and inference of the pretender’s mind under three conditions----toys, substitutes and imagination. Experiment 2 and 3 investigated 3- to 6-year-old preschoolers’s and 8-year-old elementary schoolers’s cognition of the role of intention and knowledge in pretence. These results showed that:1. Most 3- to 5-year-olds could recognize pretence. The ability of inference about the pretender’s mental state developed with age. 3-year-olds began to germinate, 4- to 5-year-olds developed quickly and 5-year-olds could infer the pretender’s mental state gradually, namely developed the ability of metarepresentation. 2. Childern’s cognitive development about the role of intention in pretence was gradually, which preschoolers before 5 couldn’t understand, preschoolers aged 6 could do, but it was not stable and easily affected by outward behavior, then 8-year-olds got to a steady level. Children’s cognitive development process about knowledge in pretence was following: 5-year-olds could understand the role of knowledge in pretence in non-action condition, 6-year-olds could do in action condition, but it was not stable and easily influenced by action. 8-year-olds who could integrate knowledge and action appreciated the role of knowledge in pretence.Preschoolers’understanding about the role of knowledge in pretence laged behind that of intention in pretence. 3. The age of materepresentation ability appearance was different in pretence and non-pretend condition. The ability came into being at 4 in pretence and at 5 in non-pretence condition.4. 3- to 5-year-olds’ recognition of pretence and inference of pretender’s mental state was easily affected by supports. Recognition of pretence was the easiest in the conditon of imagination and the most difficult in the condition of toys. Inference of the pretender’s mental state was easier in substutes than that in imaginarys.3- and 4-year-old preschoolers’ cognition performance of intention in pretence was easily influenced by the task degree of easiness and diffculty. So Preschoolers’ cognition performance of knowledge in pretence aged 3-6 did. 5. 3- to 5-year-olds mainly tended to recognize the pretence by external manifestation. Some preschoolers’ conception of pretence appeared to be confused state, which they couldn’t discriminate the word of “fake” depicting objects or reality affairs from that of “pretence” depicting the mental state.
Subject Area发展心理学
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王桂琴. 儿童对假装的认知发展[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2002.
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