比较过程中的整体加工与分析加工
周国梅
学位类型博士
导师傅小兰
2003-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业基础心理学
关键词异同比较 相似差异比较 整体加工 分析加工 文化差异
摘要比较是人的一种基本认知功能,给出物体相同或不同,相似或差异的区分。 对比较进行研究一般采用异同比较任务,相似性评级任务或选择任务。有关异同 比较加工机制的研究提出了两种对立的观点。一种观点认为,同判断和异判断是 同一种过程,只不过得出同或异两种不同的结果;另一种观点认为,二者是两种 不同的过程,同判断基于整体匹配加工,而异判断基于特征分析加工。有关相似 和差异比较的研究也存在类似的两种对立的观点。一种观点认为,相似比较和差 异比较是对称的;另一种观点认为,二者是非对称的,相似比较注重整体,而差 异比较注重分析。因此,无论是同判断和异判断,还是相似比较和差异比较,研 究争论的一个核心问题就是整体加工和分析加工。 本研究针对比较过程中的整体加工和分析加工问题,借鉴其它领域中有关整 体加工和分析加工的研究成果,区分了三种类型的整体加工,即整体特征优先、 整体模板匹配和情境依赖,使用具有三类整体特征的实验材料,采用慢速比较、 快速比较以及速示比较三种研究范式,在慢速比较中对每种材料又进一步区分了 有无扩展情境两种实验条件,以系统深入地探讨比较的动态加工过程及加工模 式。 本研究由 3 个子研究共 12 个实验组成。研究发现: 1、异同比较是双过程的重叠加工。同判断是整体加工的,表现为整体特征 的优先加工而不是整体匹配;而异判断是分析的、自终止的。同判断首先开始对 整体特征进行加工,随后异判断才开始对局部特征进行加工。 2、相似比较与差异比较是不对称的。相似比较是整体加工的,表现为其比 较的结果受情境变化的影响;而差异比较是分析加工的,表现为其比较的结果更 少受情境变化的影响。 3、比较加工过程随时间的变化而变化。在快速的异同比较中,对整体特征 优先加工,稍后才对局部特征进行加工;而在慢速的相似差异比较中,对整体特 征和局部特征的加工没有侧重优势。 4、比较受文化的影响。一般情况下,中国被试的比较更多受比较情境的影 响,更少遵循一定的规则。但是,中国被试对脸图材料的比较与西方研究结果不 同,表现为中性脸图与笑脸图更相似,并且该结果不受情境变化的影响,这可能 体现了中国传统文化的作用。
其他摘要Comparison is a basic cognitive function. Genrally, it tells us if two objects are same or different and if two objects are more similar or more different. The research on comparison usually adopts the paradigm of same-different comparison and the paradigm of similarity rating or similarity forced-choice. The research on same-different comparison arises two opposite theories: Single-process, and dual-process. Single-process theory supposes that it is the same fundamental mechanism operating under both same judgment and different judgment, which can output the signal either of same or of different. On the contrary, dual-process theory supposes that same judgment and different judgment have different fundamental mechanisms, where same judgment is a holistic pattern matching process, while different judgment is analytical. The research on similarity-difference comparison also advances two conflicting theories. One regards that similarity judgment and difference judgment are symmetrical. The other holds that they are asymmetrical: Similarity judgment is more holistic but difference judgment is more analytical. In both same-different comparison and similarity-difference comparison, the key issue is about holistic process vs analytical process. This research aims at this issue. From the results about holistic process and analytical process in other research areas, we summarized three kinds of holistic process: Holistic features precedence, pattern matching, and context-dependent. In this research, we investigated the insides of comparison according to the above category. Three kinds of holistic features were adopted as experimental materials. And three kinds of comparison paradigms such as slow speed comparison, middle speed comparison, and rapid comparison, were adopted in order to go deep into the dynamic comparison process and comparison mode. Also, in slow comparison, the context-dependent conditions were considered. This research includes three sub-studies and totally twelve experiments. We found that: 
1. Same-different comparison is dual serial process. Same judgment is holistic process that behaves as holistic features precedence but not as pattern matching. Different judgment is analytical and self-terminate. Holistic features are processed before local features. 2. Similarity comparison and difference comparison are asymmetrical. Similarity comparison is holistic because of its context-dependency, while difference comparison is analytical because it is less influenced by context. 3. Comparison process is a dynamic process. At the rapid same-different comparison, holistic features are processed first, and then the local features. As the comparison goes along, there is no emphasis on holistic feature or local feature at the slow similarity-difference comparison. 4. Comparison is cultural specific. Generally, the comparison process of Chinese is more context-dependent, and less influenced by rules. The result of Chinese is different from that of Western. That is, neutral faces are more similar to smile faces, which is independent from the change of context. Chinese traditional culture may have effect on it. 

学科领域认知心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/7344
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
周国梅. 比较过程中的整体加工与分析加工[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2003.
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