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大脑海氏回的结构、功能连接及其遗传基础
其他题名The Anatomy and Functional Connectivity of Heschl's Gyrus and Its Genetic Underpinnings
蔡丹超
学位类型博士
导师杨玉芳
2015-05
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词海氏回 音高知觉 声调 静息态功能成像 全基因组关联
摘要海氏回(Heschl’s gyrus )位于大脑的颞上皮层,包含初级听觉皮层,是音高知觉的核心脑区。本论文围绕海氏回展开,旨在探究声调语言使用经验如何影响海氏回及邻近区域的结构特征及其功能连接,并进一步探究海氏回大小的遗传基础。
    研究一根据人工标注的结果比较了不同大脑图谱自动标注海氏回的准确性。结果表明,FreeSurfer 软件使用的Desikan 和Destrieux 图谱能较为准确地标注海氏回。该结果为后续研究中海氏回结构的自动标注提供了依据。研究一还尝试利用静息态局部功能连接信息对自动标注的结果进行修正,结果只对部分被试有效。
     已有研究表明,海氏回大小与音高知觉能力之间存在正相关。由于声调语言母语者相对非声调语言存在音高知觉优势,研究二比较了汉语(声调语言)和荷兰语(非声调语言)母语者在海氏回及邻近区域的结构和功能连接差异。结果表明,汉语组的海氏回和颞极平面(planum polare )更大,并且只有汉语组具有左侧颞极平面与语音加工脑区之间的连接,说明该区域在声调加工中扮演着重要角色。该研究第一次使用大样本系统地比较了两类语言在听觉网络和语音加工网络的异同,为声调加工机制提供了新的证据。
    海氏回在结构功能上的个体及群体差异源自先天遗传和后天经验两方面的影响。已有研究表明,海氏回的表面积和皮层厚度具有较高的可遗传性。研究三通过对三千多名健康欧洲被试的全基因组关联分析(genome-wide association scan),分别探索了与双侧海氏回表面积和皮层厚度存在关联的基因位点。最显著的关联存在于右侧海氏回表面积与单核苷酸多态性(single nucleotide polymorphism,SNP)rs72932726 之间。该SNP 靠近DCBLD2 基因 (位于3q12.1),与听觉网络和语言网络中的其他脑区也存在关联。左侧海氏回大小可能与KALRN 和COBLL1 基因的表达水平有关,两者都可以调节神经元的形态和发展。右侧海氏回的皮层厚度可能与内耳发育过程有关,该过程受到X 连锁非症状性耳聋基因POU3F4 的调节。这是第一个将海氏回结构特征作为表现型的大样本基因关联研究。
其他摘要Heschl’s gyrus (HG) is a region of primary auditory cortex located in the superior temporal lobe. It plays a central role in pitch perception. The main purpose of  the current thesis was to explore the brain structure underlying pitch perception, i.e. HG. We compared the anatomical features of HG and its neighboring regions as well as local functional connectivity between them in native speakers of tonal and non-tonal languages. We also explored the genetic underpinnings of the individual differences in the morphology of HG.
      In the first study, we compared three atlases from two popular brain imaging processing packages. The region of the left HG obtained from these atlases was compared with the manual labeling. The Desikan and Destrieux atlas from FreeSurfer showed better performance in parcellating HG. Destrieux was used in the second study while Desikan was used in the third study. Furthermore, we explored the possibility to improve the automatic cortical parcellation by using the local resting-state connectivity within HG.
      Earlier research showed a positive correlation between the size of HG and the performance on pitch perception. Also, there was an advantage of pitch perception in tonal language speakers which might be related to HG. In the second study, we compared the anatomical features and resting state connectivity in the superior temporal lobe between Chinese (tonal language) and Dutch (non-tonal language) native speakers. Chinese speakers showed larger surface area in bilateral HG and planum polare (PP). A unique link between left PP and the phonetic network was found in Chinese, indicating the importance of PP in lexical tone processing. This is the first study comparing the auditory and phonetic networks underlying tonal and non-tonal languages with a big sample size.
     Previous studies showed that morphological features of HG, such as surface area and cortical thickness, are highly heritable. In the third study, we explored the genetic variants related to the surface area and thickness of bilateral HG by conducting genome-wide association scan (GWAS) in more than three thousands healthy European individuals. A suggestive association was found between the right HG area and the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs72932726 near gene DCBLD2 (3q12.1). This SNP was also associated with the surface area of other regions involved in auditory and language processing. The size of left HG might be related to the expression level of gene KALRN and COBLL1, both of which regulate neuron morphogenesis. The right HG thickness is possibly related to the inner ear development which is regulated by the X-linked deafness gene POU3F4. This is the first molecular genetic analysis of variability in HG morphology. 
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19487
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
蔡丹超. 大脑海氏回的结构、功能连接及其遗传基础[D]. 北京. 中国科学院心理研究所,2015.
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