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前瞻记忆的执行意向效应以及在精神分裂症谱系中的应用
其他题名The effect of implementation intention on prospective memory and its implication in schizophrenia spectrum
陈星洁
学位类型硕士
导师王亚
2015-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词前瞻记忆 执行意向 精神分裂症谱系 功能磁共振
摘要前瞻记忆(Prospective Memory)是指对预定事件或行为的记忆。研究表明,精神分裂症谱系中的个体存在不同程度的前瞻记忆缺损。执行意向(Implementation Intention)是一种“如果...,那么...”形式的计划策略,能帮人们更好的达到目标。对于存在前瞻记忆缺损的精神分裂症谱系个体,执行意向可能是一种有效的改善策略。本论文将探讨执行意向对前瞻记忆促进的效应及机制,并对其在精神分裂症谱系个体中的应用进行深入研究。
论文共包括三个研究。研究一对执行意向对前瞻记忆的促进效应进行文献梳理,并进行元分析,将以往的研究通过量化的分析来探讨执行意向对前瞻记忆促进效果的稳定性以及可能的内在机制。研究二通过一个脑成像研究,在健康人群中初步探讨执行意向促进前瞻记忆的神经机制是什么,为进一步在临床个体中探讨其神经机制打下理论和实践基础。研究三将执行意向应用到精神分裂症谱系,针对其前瞻记忆的缺损情况,通过两个行为学研究,分别探讨分裂型人格倾向个体和精神分裂症患者中执行意向对前瞻记忆的促进效应,并对其心理机制进行探讨。
研究一结果表明执行意向可以帮助人们更好的完成前瞻记忆,在健康成年人中达到了中等程度的效应值(d = 0.445),在老年人中存在一个中到大的效应值(d = 0.680)。且言语重复与想象表征相结合的方式对前瞻记忆的促进效应最大。此外,执行意向延长了进行中任务的反应时(d = 0.224),表明执行意向对前瞻记忆的促进不是一个完全自动加工的过程。
研究二结果表明执行意向主要在前瞻记忆的意向维持和完成阶段发挥作用。在意向维持阶段,执行意向组在颞叶、扣带回以及脑岛、壳核有更强的激活,说明执行意向促进了前瞻记忆的意向表征和储存,以及对前瞻记忆线索的检测,是一个相对控制的加工过程。而在意向完成阶段,执行意向组在内侧前额叶、楔叶、扣带回等脑区激活更弱,说明执行意向降低了前瞻记忆完成的难度,使个体使用更少的心理资源更好的完成前瞻记忆,是一个相对自动的加工过程。
研究三结果表明,执行意向可以促进分裂型人格倾向个体和精神分裂症患者的前瞻记忆表现。且执行意向对前瞻记忆促进的心理机制不同。对于分裂型人格倾向个体而言,执行意向改变其认知资源的分配情况,被试通过分配更多的认知资源用于监测前瞻记忆线索的出现,从而提高前瞻记忆成绩。而对于精神分裂症患者而言,执行意向则降低了病人在完成前瞻记忆任务时对认知资源的依赖性,在执行意向的作用下认知负荷对前瞻记忆的影响不显著,说明是一个相对自动的加工过程。
总而言之,执行意向可以有效的帮助人们更好的完成前瞻记忆任务,其可能的机制是在意向维持阶段促进了在进行中任务对前瞻记忆线索的检测和对前瞻意向的表征;在意向完成阶段,执行意向促进了前瞻记忆的自动加工,减少了相应的大脑活动。在前瞻记忆受损的精神分裂症谱系个体中,执行意向可以有效帮助其改善前瞻记忆表现。对于分裂型人格倾向个体,执行意向改变了其认知资源的分配;对于精神分裂症患者,执行意向促进了其对前瞻记忆的自动化加工。该研究对执行意向对前瞻记忆的促进机制的探讨具有理论意义,并将执行意向应用于精神分裂症谱系个体,帮助其改善前瞻记忆表现,具有现实意义。
其他摘要Prospective memory (PM) refers to remembering to do something at a future time. Implementation intention prescribes an encoding strategy in the form of ‘‘if I encounter X then I will do Y’’. It can be used to improve people’s PM performance. Individuals in the schizophrenia spectrum are characterized by PM impairments. The present thesis explored the potential mechanisms of the effect of implementation intention on PM. Furthermore, we explored the effect of implementation intention on PM performance in the schizophrenia spectrum mainly in participants with schizotypal personality features (SPD) and schizophrenia patients.
There are three studies in this thesis. Study 1 went through the literature of the effect of implementation intention on PM and conducted a meta-analysis. Study 2 explored the neural mechanisms of implementation intention on PM. Study 3 consisted of two experiments which applied implementation intention in the schizophrenia spectrum including SPD individuals and schizophrenia patients to examine its improving effect on PM performance and the underlying mechanisms.
The results of Study 1 showed that implementation intention had a medium-sized effect in improving PM performance, and it can significantly improve PM performance in both young (d = 0.445) and older adults (d = 0.680). For the three types of implementation intention encoding, the combination of verbal and imagery was found to have a significantly larger effect than imagery alone. The performance of ongoing task were reduced (as reflected by longer reaction time) by implementation intention which meant process of implementation intention facilitating PM was not completely automatic.
The results of Study 2 suggested that implementation intention affected the processes of intention maintenance and execution stages. At the intention maintenance stage, individuals with implementation intention showed stronger brain activation in the areas of temporal cortex including superior and middle temporal gyrus, anterior cingulated gyrus, insula and putamen. Implementation
IV
intention may promote the processes of cue monitoring and intention representation. It is probably a comparatively controlled process. At the intention execution stage, individuals with implementation intention showed hypo-activation in medial frontal gyrus, cuneus, anterior and posterior cingulated gyri. This suggested that mental resources needed in the PM execution stage were reduced. It is probably a comparatively automatic process.
Study 3 showed that implementation intention could help SPD participants and schizophrenia patients to improve their PM performance. However, they showed different mechanisms. SPD allocated significantly more cognitive resources to the PM task in the implementation intention condition. While for schizophrenia patients, implementation intention reduced their reliance on cognitive resources to perform the PM task and helped them to accomplish PM task more automatically.
In summary, implementation intention can help people with their PM performance. It may be a complicated process involving both automatic and controlled processing. It is effective to help individuals in schizophrenia spectrum who suffer PM deficits and different mechanisms might be involved in different populations. For SPD, it is a more controlled process, while for schizophrenia patients, it is a more automatic process. Our findings suggested that implementation intention might be an effective intervention for individuals in schizophrenia spectrum to improve their PM performance. Moreover, it helped us to better understand the mechanism of implementation intention.
学科领域认知神经科学
语种英语
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19494
专题中国科学院心理健康重点实验室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
陈星洁. 前瞻记忆的执行意向效应以及在精神分裂症谱系中的应用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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