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欺骗条件下人体运动信息的表达与识别研究
其他题名Expression and Recognition of Deception through Individuals' Bodily Kinematic Information
陈宥辛
学位类型博士
导师傅小兰
2015-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词欺骗行为 人体运动信息 非言语视觉线索 谎言识别
摘要欺骗行为在社会中是一种常见并且人们习以为常的行为。成功的欺骗行为不仅能帮助个体争取更多的资源,协助个体回避真实行为可能导致的惩罚,而且在人际交往活动中扮演着促进平衡与和谐的角色(例如善意的谎言)。然而,除善意的谎言以外的欺骗行为,被欺骗的个体往往处于某种不利之势,也因此人们一生中不仅会学习如何欺骗他人,同时也会学习如何识别欺骗行为以防自己成为欺骗行为的受害者。自古至今,学者们不断地寻找能有效区分真实与欺骗行为的非言语视觉线索,然而结果不尽一致。近十年的元分析结果也指出,以往研究中所关注或观测的非言语视觉欺骗线索有将近半数以上与欺骗行为无关。
本研究基于前人文献对以往欺骗行为表达与识别研究中的问题进行归纳分析,发现以往探讨非言语视觉欺骗线索的研究中缺乏进一步细分个体姿态和动作的客观量化与精准测量的方法,并且提出借助运动捕捉技术解决姿态和动作的量化与精准测量的问题,从以往研究未曾关注的视角观测及分析人们的欺骗行为,考察通过肉眼所无法精准测量的运动信息及其与欺骗行为的关系。
实验内容分为研究一和研究二两部分,一共包括两个实验。研究一主要关注个体欺骗时人体运动信息的表达与识别,借助运动捕捉技术考察个体在欺骗与基线条件下所产生的行为,考察两种条件下人体运动信息的表达是否存在差异,并同时考察人体运动信息作为非言语视觉欺骗线索的可行性,最后讨论基线与欺骗条件之间人体运动信息表达上的差异及其背后所对应的心理因素及心理过程。研究二主要探讨个体在识别他人欺骗行为时关注哪些人体运动信息,通过眼动技术进一步探讨哪些身体线索有助于个体正确识别欺骗行为。本研究得出以下的主要结果:
1.发现个体欺骗时全身(除了左腰、右手腕以及右手肘)的关节点和头部的速度以及总位移量都显著少于基线条件。此结果表明,个体欺骗与基线条件下的人体运动信息确实存在差异。
2.相关分析结果表明个体识别欺骗行为时关注手部的注视点个数以及注视时长与识别欺骗正确率负相关,同时也发现个体关注躯干的注视点个数以及注视时长与识别欺骗正确率正相关。
3. 综合考虑研究一与研究二的结果可发现,研究一中在欺骗与基线条件之间不存在差异的身体部位,即右手腕及手肘的运动信息,在研究二中与个体识别欺骗行为的正确率负相关。反之,研究一中在欺骗与基线条件之间存在差异的身体部位的运动信息(例如与躯干有较大关系的左右肩膀),在研究二中发现与个体识别欺骗行为的正确率正相关。根据以上的结果,本论文从人体运动信息表达及识别两方面的结果,验证了人体运动信息作为有效的非言语视觉欺骗线索的可能性。
本论文结合运动捕捉数据以及眼动数据,验证了人体运动信息作为有效的非言语视觉欺骗线索的可能性,拓展现有对非言语视觉欺骗线索的认识与理解。
其他摘要Deceptive behavior is a common and frequently observed behavior in society because successful deceptive behavior have been observed to reward the individual with more resources, aid individuals escape punishments, as well as play a role in mediating balance and improvements in social relationships. As beneficial as it may be for the deceiving individual, most lies are disadvantageous to the receiver and may lead to serious consequences if the individual is not aware of the lie. As such, humans spend a lifetime learning to deceive others, simultaneously they learn how to detect deception in order to prevent themselves from becoming a victim of deception. Since ancient times, researchers and scholars alike have sought to reveal nonverbal cues of deception that can effectively aid individuals in veracity judgments. Despite centuries of research spent on uncovering nonverbal cues of deception, recent extensive meta-analyses on deception research from the past century revealed that half of the nonverbal cues thought to be linked to deception are in fact unrelated to deception.
The current study extensively reviewed research studies on the nonverbal cues of deception from the past century along with its problems and flaws, and noticed at the core of previous deception research exists a very critical problem regarding precise quantification of behaviors and obtainment of objective measures of deceptive behavior. Accounting for this issue, the current study propose to use motion capture technology, which has been known to accurately and precisely record human bodily movements, to resolve issues regarding quantification of behaviors that occur during deception. The study aims to answer an age old question and investigate whether at a kinematic level representation of behavior, differences between deceptive and baseline behaviors exist, and whether these differences are in anyway related to psychological factors that are related to deception. The current research is organized into two sections. The first section aims to investigate whether individuals kinematic information differ when the individual attempts to deceive compared to the individual's behavior under baseline conditions.
Findings obtained in the first section of our research are then used to further evaluate whether individuals' kinematic information serve as a good nonverbal cue of deception. The second section of the research aims to uncover the nonverbal cues and bodily cues that individuals rely upon in deception detection tasks. Utilizing eye-tracking technology, we aim to capture individual's gaze pattern and investigate which bodily cues individuals rely upon to form veracity judgments. Through which we hope to uncover useful nonverbal cues of deception that may help to improve individuals accuracy in deception detection.
Listed below are some of the main findings in the current research: 1. We found that individuals’ whole body kinematic information in the deceptive condition (not including the following joints: left hip, right wrist, and right elbow) differed from individuals kinematic information in the baseline condition. Specifically, we observed that individuals with the intent to deceive moved slower and moved less than baseline conditions.
2. Correlation analyses revealed that individuals’ fixation duration on the hands were negatively correlated to individuals accuracy of veracity judgments. In contrast, we found that fixation count and fixation duration on the body were positively correlated to individuals accuracy of veracity judgment.
3. Reviewing the results from the first and second section of the research, we observed a fairly consistent result across both research. In the first section, we observed that the actors' hand movement and hand kinematic information did not differ significantly between the deceptive and baseline condition. This result suggest that hand kinematic information may not be useful in differentiating deceptive behavior from baseline behavior. Supporting this proposition was the correlation analyses result that indicated a negative correlation between individual's accuracy in veracity
judgment and individuals' fixation duration on the actor's hand. The same result could be observed for body cues as well, except that body cues were positively correlated to accuracy in veracity judgments. According to results from both deception expression and recognition tasks, we may conclude with certain confidence that individuals' bodily kinematic information (specifically an individual’s torso kinematic information) could serve as an effective nonverbal visual cue of deception. The current study utilized both motion capture technology and eye-tracking technology to conduct an insightful and exploratory study on whether individuals bodily expression of kinematic information differed in deceptive and baseline conditions; furthermore investigated its relationship to deception. Our findings suggest body kinematic information may serve as an effective nonverbal visual cue of deception, extending current understandings of nonverbal cues to deception.
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19496
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
陈宥辛. 欺骗条件下人体运动信息的表达与识别研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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