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工作记忆对无意识视觉加工的调节作用及其神经机制
其他题名The modulation of working memory on unconscious visual processing and its mechanisms
刘冬
学位类型博士
导师蒋毅
2015-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词工作记忆 持续闪烁抑制 无意识
摘要前人研究表明工作记忆的内容可以引导选择性注意,甚至在记忆内容与搜索目标无关时仍可以影响视觉搜索。这种引导作用主要表现为当搜索目标与记忆项目匹配时,会提高视觉搜索的效率,反之若记忆项目与分心物匹配时,则会妨碍视觉搜索。然而目前研究主要集中在工作记忆如何影响意识上的视觉加工,较少关心工作记忆的内容能否影响无意识视觉加工。因此本研究将结合延迟匹配范式与持续闪烁抑制范式来研究工作记忆的内容是如何影响无意识视觉加工的,并试图在3 个研究中回答上述问题。在研究一中,我们考察了工作记忆的内容是如何影响无意识情绪加工过程的,并发现工作记忆的内容会促使与其情绪效价一致的面孔更快地突破抑制,但仅限于在掩蔽刺激为恐惧面孔时;脑成像结果显示在CFS 阶段出现的恐惧面孔与记忆阶段的面孔情绪效价一致时相较于其他实验条件,杏仁核与面孔加工相关脑区如右侧梭状回、右侧颞上回之间的功能连接强度更强,类似的额叶(如前扣带)、顶叶(如顶下小叶)等广泛脑区与右侧梭状回之间的功能连接强度也相较于其他实验条件更强,暗示了保持在工作记忆中的内容对无意识情绪信息加工过程的影响是来自额-顶区自上而下的调节作用与来自杏仁核的反馈作用共同作用的结果。研究二中,我们考察了工作记忆中的声音信息是如何跨通道地影响无意识情绪面孔加工的,我们发现当恐惧情绪声音保持在工作记忆中时,会促进与之情绪效价一致的面孔图片更快的进入意识,而对于被掩蔽的中性面孔,无论是保持在工作记忆中的恐惧信息还是被动听的情绪声音均会促进无意识中性面孔更快的突破抑制,暗示了情绪信息对视知觉的调节可以作用于较晚期的视觉加工。在研究三中,我们进一步考察工作记忆中的客体声音信息是如何影响无意识客体图片加工的,我们发现声音信息可以促进客体刺激的无意识加工过程,说明工作记忆对无意识调节作用是一个较为广泛的过程。总之,我们的研究暗示了工作记忆是一种灵活的信息选择机制,借助于自上而下的调节作用,能够作用于广泛的视觉加工区从而提高无意识信息进入意识的可能性。
其他摘要Previous studies have shown that contents held in working memory can guide visual selection, even when the contents are irrelevant to a subsequent visual search task. Search efficiency is enhanced when the stimulus matches the search target, and is decreased when the stimulus matches a distractor. So far there have not been any explorations into whether the working memory can influence unconscious visual processing, whilst also testing the mechanisms for working memory on unconscious visual processing. Here we probe this issue by combining the delayed matchto-sample task with the continuous flash suppression paradigm to test how working memory can modulate unconscious visual processing. Three studies were conducted to address these questions: In study 1, we found that suppressed faces matched the WM contents in emotional valence broke from suppression more quickly than the unmatched ones especially for the fearful faces. In the neuroimaging task, we found that suppressed fearful faces matched the WM contents in emotional valence could evoke a stronger connectivity between the amygdala and the face-related areas such as rFFA and the STG, moreover, the results showed that other functional connectivities between the frontal-parietal areas and the rFFA were also sensitive to the match in emotion valence among fearful faces. Our findings shed light on how the top-down influences from frontal-parietal areas and the projections from amygdala to visual areas interacted to contribute to consciousness. In study 2, we aimed to test whether unconscious emotional processing can be affected by the stimuli held in WM from another modality. Our results suggested that the WM emotional sounds could boost the unconscious fearful face processing via the match in emotional valence. Additionally, the suppressed neutral face could emerge from suppression more quickly when a fearful sound was asked to be retained or attened, which indicated the emotional information could exert an influence on the late stage of visual processing. In study 3, we tested how the object sounds kept in working memory could modulate unconscious object processing, and found that the suppression times could be faster based on a semantic congruency. In total, our studies have suggested that working memory as a flexible information selecting mechanism can act on the visual areas to enhance the possibility of the unperceived information to get access into awareness via a top-down modulation.
学科领域认知神经科学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19624
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
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刘冬. 工作记忆对无意识视觉加工的调节作用及其神经机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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