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高原低氧环境对工作记忆的影响
其他题名The influence of High Altitude on Working Memory 
马海林
学位类型博士
导师发展与教育心理学
2015-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词高海拔 认知损伤 空间工作记忆 言语工作记忆 事件相关电位
摘要近年,涌入高海拔地区旅游或工作者越来越多,低氧环境对个体认知功能的影响研究也不断增加。本研究基于认知资源限制理论,采用事件相关电位(Event-related potential, ERP)技术,通过n-back任务和延迟样本匹配任务,探讨长期高海拔对工作记忆系统中视空间模板、语音环和中央执行功能(刷新和保持)三个子成分的影响机制。并通过追踪研究和对比不同高海拔地区工作记忆的差异,探讨高海拔对工作记忆影响的时间和空间效应。
论文包括四项研究:1)比较20名西藏大学四年级学生和20 名从未到过高海拔地区的同龄大学生言语和空间n-back任务测试成绩, 考察其工作记忆的刷新能力;2)比较22名西藏大学四年级学生和23 名从未到过高海拔地区的同龄大学生的延迟样本匹配任务测试成绩,考察其工作记忆的保持能力;3)比较18名海拔2700米左右、23名3700米左右和23名4200米左右地区长大被试的言语和空间n-back任务测试成绩,系统考察不同海拔高度对工作记忆刷新能力的影响;4)分三次(7天、3月、1年)测试26名刚入藏的汉族大学生的n-back任务,第二次、第三次测试分别招募了24名和32名同龄对照组, 系统考察其言语和空间工作记忆随居住高海拔时间变化的变化特点。
研究发现:
(1)言语和空间任务皆表明高海拔组被试与信息刷新功能密切相关的顶叶部位的P3明显变大,且记忆负荷效应显著,说明高海拔组瞬时刷新时的认知负荷高于低海拔组。在空间工作记忆任务中,高海拔组在高知觉负荷条件下比低知觉负荷下诱发更大的前额叶LPC,说明高海拔组比低海拔进行空间信息表征时付出的努力更多。但在言语工作记忆任务上无此效应。
(2)在信息保持功能上。低认知负荷条件下,在300-470 ms时间范围内高海拔组无干扰和有干扰条件的CDA成分存在显著差异,低海拔组在前述两种条件中无显著差异。说明个体在高海拔的记忆负荷比在低海拔要大,过滤干扰刺激的能力下降,其工作记忆的保持能力受缺氧损害。
(3)不同高海拔地区的对比研究显示,4000米以上高海拔损伤个体的言语和空间工作记忆的加工, 但高原土著居民可通过增强认知努力补偿高原低氧环境的损伤。3700米海拔居民工作记忆也有部分损伤,故难以断定4000米就是海拔损伤认知的临界点。
(4)追踪研究的结果表明,短期高海拔居住者的言语工作记忆任务的正确率显著下降,说明因急性缺氧受损;但是3个月的适应期之后可以恢复至正常水平。空间工作记忆无类似变化。 
结论: 高原低氧环境使得高海拔个体瞬时刷新时的认知负荷变大以及高海拔个体的信息保持能力下降;在3700米的海拔处就出现了ERP的损伤效应;言语工作记忆受急性缺氧的影响,空间工作记忆则无此效应。

其他摘要       In recent years, there have been an increasing population living at high altitude  (HA) due to immigration, work duty or tourism. More studies began to concern  whether high altitude hypoxic impact these individual`s cognitive. In the present  study, based on Cognitive resource constraints theory, we used the event‐related  potentials  (ERP)  and  follow‐up  study  by  The  n‐back tasks and delayed matching‐to‐sample task (DSMT) to explore the underlying neutral mechanism of  influences of high altitude hypoxia on three subsystems of working memory,  phonological loop、 visuospatial sketh pad and the central executive, and to explore space and time effect of impact of high altitude hypoxia on working memory. 
      The current paper contained four researchs, which in turn were 1) to select 20  college students who have lived at 3700m altitude for three years and 20 college  students who were born and grown up at sea level place to measure working  memory by n‐back task, so as to systematically investigate altitude effect of  refreshing of verbal and spatial working memory; 2) to select 22 college students  who have lived at 3700m altitude for three years and 23 college students who were  born and grown up at sea level place to measure working memory by DMST task, so 

as to systematically investigate altitude effect of capacity of working memory; 3) to  select 23 college students who have born and grown up at 3700m altitude, 18 college  students who have born and grown up at 2700m altitude, and 23 college students  who have born and grown up at 4200m altitude to measure working memory by  n‐back task, so as to systematically investigate altitude effect of refreshing of verbal  and spatial working memory; 4) to select 26 college students who have reached at  3700m altitude for less than seven days to measure working memory by n‐back task for three time (7days, 3 months, and 1 years ), select 24 college students as a control 
group at the second measure, and select another 32 college students as a control  group at the third measure, so as to systematically investigate time effect exposure to  high altitude of refreshing of verbal and spatial working memory.
   We found that: 
      (1) we found P3 which was closed associated with the updating function at the  parietal were influenced by high altitude hypoxia in both verbal and spatial tasks, and  high altitude group have a memory load effect. This indicated that the load of  instaneous refresh was increased in high altitude group compare to low altitude  group. The LPC amplitude at the prefrontal have a memory load effect in the spatial  tasks , but not in the verbal tasks. This indicated that the effort in spatial information  representation in high altitude group was more than in low altitude group. 
(2) In the working memory capacity, The CDA amplitudes have a significant  difference at the time period of 300 470 ms between the low cognitive load without  interference condition and the low cognitive load with interference in the high  altitude group, but not in low altitude group. This result implied the working momory  capacity on the high altitude group was reduced. 
      (3) The study by compare the results from three different high altitude found  that high altitude have an impaired effect to verbal and spatial working memory  when the altitude is more than 4000 m. Indigenous individuals compensate the  impaired by enhancing cognitive effort. However, We also found an impaired effect at  3700m altitude, it is difficult to determine that 4000m altitude is a thershold lead to  cognitive impaired. 
      (4) The follow‐up study found the correct rate of reaction in the verbal tasks  have a significant decreased when acute exposured to altitude. This indicated that  acute hypoxia may lead to decreased verbal working memory. However, Verbal  working memory has shown no obvious altitude effect after three months of  adjustment period.
Conclusion:The load of instaneous refresh was increased in high altitude group  and the capacity of representation in working memory was reduced compare to low  altitude group. The impaired effect was appearance at 3700 m altitude. The verbal  working memory affected by acute hypoxia, but the spatial working memory was not. 
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19638
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所 
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
马海林. 高原低氧环境对工作记忆的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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