|其他题名||The development of attention in 7-12-year-old children and its relationship with intelligence|
|关键词||注意 智力 儿童 发展 教育|
本研究以7-12 岁小学儿童为研究对象，选取警觉、专注性注意、分配性注意、注意转换、保持性注意、空间注意和监控注意共 7种注意任务，设计了三个研究，分别考察了注意的不同方面的发展以及它们与智力的关系。研究一考察了7-12岁儿童注意的发展及其内部结构的可分离性；研究二在研究一的基础上，对注意不同成分与智力之间的关系进行了考察，并对比了高智力水平与普通智力水平儿童注意上存在的差异；研究三又在研究二的基础上，对教育环境对高智力水平儿童注意的影响进行了考察。获得以下主要结论：
|其他摘要||Attention is a kind of resource which is needed by all psychological activities. Although plenty of studies focused on attention, profound thinking is still needed on some questions. The first one is the development research on attention. There are many kinds of attention, however, studies on the development of different attention and the structure of attention are few. The second one is related to the individual differences on attention. As we know, quite a few of intelligence theories mentioned about attention, which afford an appropriate perspective to study the individual differences of attention. The third one concerns about the effect of environment on attention development. In all the environments which can affect attention, education environment is one of most important. Researches on the differences of individuals’ attention under different education environment can provide some important information on the environment effect on attention.|
Taking 7-12-year-old children as participants, the present study chose 7 attention tests (including alertness, focused attention, divided attention, attentional switching, sustained attention, spatial attention and supervisory attention) to investigate the development of different attention and their relationships with intelligence. There are three studies: Study 1 explored the development of attention and delineated and separated attention in children into measurable constructs. Based on this, study 2 investigated the relationship between attention and intelligence. In order to promote our understanding about this relationship, we compared the differences of attention tests performance between intelligent children and average children. Study 3 focused on the education environment effect on the attention development of intelligent children. The whole work indicated that:
Firstly, the attention showed a significant development in 7-12-year-old children. Girls had better attention quality than boys did, especially in the stage of 9-10-year-old. The factor analysis showed that there was no stable construct of attention in 7-8-year-old children. The attention construct of 9-12-year-old children could be separated into perceptual attention and executive attention. However, the attention types which included by this two factors were somehow different from that included in adults.
Secondly, the correlations between attention and intelligence were changing in 7-12-year-old children. In the stage of 9-10-year-old, the correlation between attention and intelligence was closest. Comparing to fluid intelligence, attention had a closer correlation with crystallized intelligence. Executive attention had a more powerful prediction on intelligence than perceptual attention.
Thirdly, intelligent children who received enrichment education had better attention than intelligent children who received standard education.
In summary, the present study explored the construct of attention in children and throws light on the issue of the relationship between attention and intelligence from the perspective of development psychology. The present study confirmed that intelligent children who received enrichment education had better attention than intelligent children who received standard education, affording theoretical support for the gifted education practice.
|陶婷. 7-12 岁儿童注意的发展及其与智力的关系[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.|