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7-12 岁儿童注意的发展及其与智力的关系
其他题名The development of attention in 7-12-year-old children and its relationship with intelligence
陶婷
学位类型博士
导师施建农
2013-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词注意 智力 儿童 发展 教育
摘要注意是任何一种心理活动都必需的资源。虽然有关注意的研究层出不穷,但在这个领域内仍然存在以下亟需解决的问题:一,注意的发展研究:虽然注意种类繁多,但很少有研究对比不同注意的发展趋势以及注意的内部结构;二,注意的个体差异研究:注意作为一种认知能力其发展必然存在个体差异,众多的智力理论中均提到的注意成分为研究注意的个体差异提供了一个很好的切入点;三,环境对注意的影响研究,个体在发展过程中,教育环境是不可忽视的一个重要因素,研究不同教育环境中个体的注意差异对我们理解环境对注意的影响是非常重要的。
本研究以7-12 岁小学儿童为研究对象,选取警觉、专注性注意、分配性注意、注意转换、保持性注意、空间注意和监控注意共 7种注意任务,设计了三个研究,分别考察了注意的不同方面的发展以及它们与智力的关系。研究一考察了7-12岁儿童注意的发展及其内部结构的可分离性;研究二在研究一的基础上,对注意不同成分与智力之间的关系进行了考察,并对比了高智力水平与普通智力水平儿童注意上存在的差异;研究三又在研究二的基础上,对教育环境对高智力水平儿童注意的影响进行了考察。获得以下主要结论:  
(1)总体上来讲,7-12岁儿童的注意呈现出随龄发展的趋势,女生的注意品质优于男生,在 9-10岁阶段优势最为明显。在其内部结构上,7-8岁儿童的注意还没有形成稳定结构,9-12岁儿童的注意能够分离出知觉和执行两个成分,但其包含的注意类型与成人仍然存在差异。
(2) 7-12岁儿童注意与智力的关系呈现出不断变化的趋势,在9-10岁期间注意与智力的关系最为密切。相较于流体智力,注意与晶体智力的关系更为密切。执行注意对智力的预测力度比知觉注意更强。
(3)超常教育下的高智力水平儿童在注意上的表现比普通教育下的高智力水平儿童更为优秀。
综上所述,本研究在儿童群体中对注意结构的发展进行了探索,从发展的角度对注意与智力之间的关系提供了实证研究证据, 证实了接受超常教育的高智力水平儿童比接受普通教育的高智力水平儿童有更好的注意品质,对超常教育实践提供了一定的理论支持。
其他摘要Attention is a kind of resource which is needed by all psychological activities. Although plenty of studies focused on attention, profound thinking is still needed on some  questions. The first one is the development research on attention.  There are many kinds of attention, however, studies on the development of different attention and the structure of attention are few.  The second one is  related to  the individual differences on attention. As we know, quite a few of intelligence theories mentioned about attention, which afford an appropriate  perspective to study the individual differences of attention. The third one concerns about the effect of environment on attention development. In all the environments which can affect attention, education environment is one of most important. Researches on the differences of individuals’ attention under different  education  environment can provide some important information on the environment effect on attention.
Taking 7-12-year-old children as participants, the present study chose 7 attention tests (including alertness, focused attention, divided attention, attentional switching, sustained attention, spatial attention and supervisory attention) to investigate the development of different attention and their relationships with intelligence. There are three studies:  Study  1 explored the development of attention and delineated and separated  attention  in children into measurable constructs. Based on this, study 2 investigated the relationship between attention and intelligence. In order to promote our understanding about this relationship, we compared the differences of  attention tests performance between intelligent children and average children. Study 3 focused on the education  environment effect on the attention development of  intelligent children. The whole work indicated that:
Firstly, the attention showed a significant development in 7-12-year-old children. Girls had better attention quality than boys did, especially in the stage of 9-10-year-old.  The  factor analysis showed that there was no stable construct of attention in 7-8-year-old children. The attention construct of 9-12-year-old children could be separated into perceptual attention and executive attention. However, the attention types which included by this two factors were somehow different from  that included in adults.
Secondly, the correlations between  attention and intelligence were changing in 7-12-year-old children. In the stage of 9-10-year-old, the correlation between attention and intelligence was closest. Comparing to fluid intelligence,  attention had a closer correlation with  crystallized intelligence.  Executive attention had a more powerful prediction on intelligence than perceptual attention.  
Thirdly,  intelligent children who received enrichment education had better attention than intelligent children who received standard education.
In summary, the present study explored the construct of attention in children and throws light on the issue of the relationship between attention and intelligence from the perspective of development psychology.  The present study confirmed that intelligent children who received enrichment education had better attention than intelligent children who received standard education, affording theoretical support for the gifted education practice.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19662
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
陶婷. 7-12 岁儿童注意的发展及其与智力的关系[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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