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汉语书写产生中正字法信息提取的认知机制
其他题名The Cognitive Mechanism of Retrieving Orthographic Codes in the Process of Handwritten Production in Chinese
王 成
学位类型博士
导师张清芳
2015-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词书写产生 语音中介假设 正字法自主假设 音节频率 规则性
摘要书写产生是人们用手写的形式表达自己思想意图的过程。书写产生领域的一个重要问题是,语音代码如何影响正字法代码的通达;由此提出了正字法通达的三个可能路径:语义-正字法直接通路、词汇水平的语音中介通路和亚词汇音-形转换通路。关于书写产生依赖于哪一条通路,已有的研究未能得到一致的结论。 
大多数书写产生研究是在字母语言中实施的,字母语言存在明显的音-形对应规则,导致语音和正字法相互混淆,使字母语言的研究结果存在可疑。相比而言,汉语中存在大量的不规则字,其语音和正字法信息没有对应关系,因而对这些汉字加以适当的操纵可以得到“纯净的”语音和正字法效应。本研究利用汉语的特点,系统考察了汉语书写产生中正字法信息提取的三条可能存在的通路。
研究一采用图-词干扰范式将正字法因素和语音因素分离开来,在行为和ERP 研究中稳定地发现正字法激活不晚于语音激活,并且两者没有交互作用,表明在汉语书写产生过程中存在一个快速地语义-正字法直接通路。研究二操纵了目标刺激的音节频率,发现了累积和数目音节频率对书写反应时和脑电的影响,为词汇水平的语音中介通路提供了支持证据。研究三操纵图画名称的规则性,发现低频规则字的书写反应时比不规则字更长;然后采用图-词干扰范式,发现声旁的语音相关干扰词对书写反应时和脑电的影响;结果为亚词汇音-形转换通路的存在提供者证据。综合 ERP 实验的结果发现,正字法激活和词汇水平的语音激活较早,都是在图画出现后大约 220 ms 开始出现;亚词汇水平的语音加工开始于图画出现后的 380 ms。  
本研究的结果支持了正字法自主假设,同时也发现了词汇和亚词汇水平的语音激活。但这些结果并不矛盾,因为正字法自主假设并不拒绝语音加工的存在。这些结果说明,书写产生中正字法通达的三个通路并存,而非互相排斥;三通路可能互相整合,共同帮助正字法提取。本研究是第一个在汉语书写产生中发现正字法通达的三个通路并存的研究,为汉语书写产生的特异性和建立通用的书写产生模型奠定了基础。
其他摘要Handwritten production is the process in which individuals generate graphic words to express themselves. In the field of handwritten production, one critical issue concerns how phonological codes constrain access to orthographic codes.  Three possible routes  for orthographic access were proposed in the literature: the direct semantic-orthographic route, the lexical phonological mediation route, and the sublexical phoneme-to-grapheme conversion (PGC) route.  Each of the routes was supported by evidences from behavioral and cognitive neuropsychological research, thus, this issue remains unsolved.  
Most studies on handwritten production were conducted in alphabetical languages, in which phonology and orthography are closely inter-related, making the phonological and orthographic effects confounded with each other.  As a result, findings of phonological constraint on writing in alphabetical language are not solid. By contrast, in Chinese, pure phonological and orthographic effects can be obtained by proper manipulations, as correspondence between  phonology  and orthography does not exist for  irregular  Chinese.  This thesis attempted to systematically investigate how phonological codes constrain orthographic retrieval, using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) techniques.  
Study 1 used the picture-word interference (PWI) paradigm to separately manipulate orthographic and phonological relatedness; and consistently found that orthographic effect was not later than, and independent from, phonological effect for reaction time and ERP measures, constituting strong evidence for the semantic-orthographic route. Study 2 found that writing latencies and ERPs were modulated by the type or token measure of syllable frequency of the characters to be written, supporting the existence of lexical phonological mediation route. Study 3 found that low-frequency words with irregular first-characters were written faster than those with regular first-characters, and that distractors that phonologically related to the phonetic radical of the  picture  names prolonged written naming, supporting the existence  of the sublexical PGC route. ERP results indicated that phonological and orthographic codes at the lexical level were activated about 220 ms post stimulus, while the phonological  activation at the sublexical level happens about 380 ms post stimulus.
The main findings are: orthographic codes can be retrieved without phonological constraints, though phonological codes also can mediate orthographic retrieval via the lexical and sublexical routes. These findings are not at odd with each other, because the orthographic autonomy hypothesis does not exclude the possibility of phonological activation. Instead, these results suggest that the three routes for orthographic access coexist and contribute to handwriting in an integrative way. This thesis is the first research that found the coexistence of the three routes for orthographic access, constituting a foundation for discovering specificity of writing Chinese and constructing general theory of handwritten production.
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19707
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王 成. 汉语书写产生中正字法信息提取的认知机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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