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Alternative TitleThe Cognitive Mechanism of Retrieving Orthographic Codes in the Process of Handwritten Production in Chinese
王 成
Thesis Advisor张清芳
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline心理学
Keyword书写产生 语音中介假设 正字法自主假设 音节频率 规则性
研究一采用图-词干扰范式将正字法因素和语音因素分离开来,在行为和ERP 研究中稳定地发现正字法激活不晚于语音激活,并且两者没有交互作用,表明在汉语书写产生过程中存在一个快速地语义-正字法直接通路。研究二操纵了目标刺激的音节频率,发现了累积和数目音节频率对书写反应时和脑电的影响,为词汇水平的语音中介通路提供了支持证据。研究三操纵图画名称的规则性,发现低频规则字的书写反应时比不规则字更长;然后采用图-词干扰范式,发现声旁的语音相关干扰词对书写反应时和脑电的影响;结果为亚词汇音-形转换通路的存在提供者证据。综合 ERP 实验的结果发现,正字法激活和词汇水平的语音激活较早,都是在图画出现后大约 220 ms 开始出现;亚词汇水平的语音加工开始于图画出现后的 380 ms。  
Other AbstractHandwritten production is the process in which individuals generate graphic words to express themselves. In the field of handwritten production, one critical issue concerns how phonological codes constrain access to orthographic codes.  Three possible routes  for orthographic access were proposed in the literature: the direct semantic-orthographic route, the lexical phonological mediation route, and the sublexical phoneme-to-grapheme conversion (PGC) route.  Each of the routes was supported by evidences from behavioral and cognitive neuropsychological research, thus, this issue remains unsolved.  
Most studies on handwritten production were conducted in alphabetical languages, in which phonology and orthography are closely inter-related, making the phonological and orthographic effects confounded with each other.  As a result, findings of phonological constraint on writing in alphabetical language are not solid. By contrast, in Chinese, pure phonological and orthographic effects can be obtained by proper manipulations, as correspondence between  phonology  and orthography does not exist for  irregular  Chinese.  This thesis attempted to systematically investigate how phonological codes constrain orthographic retrieval, using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) techniques.  
Study 1 used the picture-word interference (PWI) paradigm to separately manipulate orthographic and phonological relatedness; and consistently found that orthographic effect was not later than, and independent from, phonological effect for reaction time and ERP measures, constituting strong evidence for the semantic-orthographic route. Study 2 found that writing latencies and ERPs were modulated by the type or token measure of syllable frequency of the characters to be written, supporting the existence of lexical phonological mediation route. Study 3 found that low-frequency words with irregular first-characters were written faster than those with regular first-characters, and that distractors that phonologically related to the phonetic radical of the  picture  names prolonged written naming, supporting the existence  of the sublexical PGC route. ERP results indicated that phonological and orthographic codes at the lexical level were activated about 220 ms post stimulus, while the phonological  activation at the sublexical level happens about 380 ms post stimulus.
The main findings are: orthographic codes can be retrieved without phonological constraints, though phonological codes also can mediate orthographic retrieval via the lexical and sublexical routes. These findings are not at odd with each other, because the orthographic autonomy hypothesis does not exclude the possibility of phonological activation. Instead, these results suggest that the three routes for orthographic access coexist and contribute to handwriting in an integrative way. This thesis is the first research that found the coexistence of the three routes for orthographic access, constituting a foundation for discovering specificity of writing Chinese and constructing general theory of handwritten production.
Subject Area基础心理学
Document Type学位论文
First Author AffilicationInstitute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王 成. 汉语书写产生中正字法信息提取的认知机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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