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分裂型特质与社会认知及其神经机制研究
其他题名Behavioural and Neural Basis of Social Cognition in Schizotypy
王毅
学位类型博士
导师陈楚侨
2013-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词分裂型特质 社会认知 共情 心理理论 脑成像
摘要最近的研究发现精神分裂症患者存在社会认知的缺损,并且这一缺损被认为是基本认知与功能结果之间重要的中介因素。然而目前研究者对精神分裂症的心理病理学机制及其与社会认知的关系还不清楚。之前该领域研究主要关注慢性精神分裂症患者,而该群体中的研究多受到药物状态、病程等因素的影响。非临床群体中也会出现与精神疾病临床症状相似的行为表现和人格特质,被称为分裂型特质。在非临床群体中考察分裂型特质将有助于探讨精神疾病的发展过程及其内在心理病理学机制。
为更深入了解精神分裂症与社会认知,本论文中将采取高危群体的研究方法,通过五个研究考察非临床群体中分裂型特质与社会认知的关系。主要研究目的:1)考察分裂型特质在非临床大学生群体中的分布情况、阳性和阴性维度结构以及不同维度相关的心理行为特征;2)考察分裂型特质与社会认知(包括共情和心理理论)的关系;3)考察分裂型特质群体社会认知有关的脑结构和脑功能异常。
研究一首先通过对 1609名大学生的问卷调查,验证分裂型特质维度。主成分分析发现采用 Chapman 量表测量的分裂型特质具有阳性和阴性维度。根据两个维度上的得分,将所有被试划分为混合(n=290)、阳性(n=423)、阴性(n=449)分裂型特质亚型以及对照组(n=447)。通过一系列的方差分析和回归分析探讨不同维度特质的心理行为特征,结果发现阳性分裂型特质主要与妄想观念、焦虑和应激水平有关;阴性分裂型特质与愉快体验、抑郁和社会功能有关。
研究二考察分裂型特质与共情的关系。来自研究一中的 1083名被试完成了测量共情、社会功能以及分裂型特质的问卷。结果发现,阴性分裂型特质组报告的共情比对照组差,包括认知和情感共情两个成分;而与对照组相比,阳性分裂型特质组并没有表现出显著差异。进一步的考察发现,阴性分裂型特质与共情和社会功能都存在显著的负相关,阴性分裂型特质与社会功能之间的关系受到认知共情成分的部分中介作用。
研究三在前两个研究基础上,随机选取 76名被试参加心理理论的行为实验,其中包括混合型(n=19)、阳性(n=20)、阴性(n=18)分裂型特质亚型以及对照组(n=19),考察分裂型特质与心理理论任务(失言觉察任务和 Yoni推理任务)表现之间的关系。心理理论任务表现上没有发现组别之间的显著差异,但是相关分析结果表明 SPQ量表测量的阳性和紊乱维度分裂型特质与心理理论任务表现有关。
研究四首先通过分裂型特质亚型与对照组之间在白质体积、灰质体积、皮层厚度和白质纤维各向异性等方面的比较,发现混合分裂型特质组表现出海马旁回、颞上回、楔前叶、顶下回以及脑岛等区域的灰质体积降低,同时混合分裂型被试也表现出白质体积的降低,主要在上纵束和扣带束近海马旁回的区域,以及双侧脑岛、右侧颞极的皮层增厚;阳性分裂型特质组被试表现出上纵束额叶和顶叶部分区域的白质纤维各向异性增高,以及顶叶部分脑区的皮层厚度增加。阴性特质组表现出眶额皮层厚度的降低。进一步通过偏相关分析发现,眶额皮层和脑岛两个脑区的灰质与社会认知任务表现有关。
最后,在研究五中我们通过一个漫画任务的功能成像研究更直接地考察了不同分裂型特质组之间在共情和心理理论条件下大脑活动的差异。结果发现与对照组相比,在心理理论条件下,阴性特质组表现出脑岛区域的激活减弱,而混合型特质组表现出前扣带皮层的激活增强。在共情条件下没有发现分裂型特质亚型与对照组之间的显著差别。
总体来看,本研究结果显示阴性分裂型特质表现出社会功能和共情能力的缺损,同时也表现出脑结构和脑功能的异常,主要体现在眶额皮层和脑岛;阳性分裂型特质则表现出相对完整的共情能力,但他们在心理理论方面可能存在轻微缺损。未来的研究应考察疾病不同阶段,包括基因高危和临床高危个体,以更好地考察社会认知表现的发展轨迹及其与精神疾病发展的关系。
其他摘要Deficits in social cognition have been found in patients with schizophrenia and have also been considered to be important mediators on the association between neurocognitive function and functional outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between the psychopathology of schizophrenia and social cognition, particularly empathy and theory of mind, are not fully understood. The few studies have included only patients with established schizophrenia. To advance our understanding of social cognition in schizophrenia, the present study recruited at-risk individuals prone for psychosis, namely schizotypy. The advantage of recruiting these individuals is that it minimizes the potential impact of medication status and illness duration on social cognitive functioning. Individuals with schizotypy are characterized by a set of behavioral and personality features similar to, although milder than, the clinical symptoms found in patients with schizophrenia. The study of schizotypy is helpful for us to explore the underlying mechanisms of psychopathological development of psychosis.
This dissertation consists of five studies and aims to examine: purposes of the present studies were, (a) to explore the prevalence of schizotypy and its dimensions in non-clinical population in mainland China; (b) the associations between social cognition, including empathy and theory of mind, and the dimensions of schizotypy; and (c) the brain structural and functional correlates of social cognition in schizotypy.
Study 1 aimed to validate the subtyping of schizotypy among Chinese college students. One thousand six hundred and nine college students were recruited to complete a set of questionnaires to capture the schizotypal traits, emotional experiences and expression, depression as well as social functioning. Based on their self-reported schizotypy scores,participants were classified into mixed schizotypy (n = 290), negative schizotypy (n = 449), positive schizotypy (n = 423) subgroups, and healthy controls (n = 447).  The results supported the validity of subtyping of schizophrenia among our Chinese college students sample. Positive schizotypy was associated with psychotic-like experiences, anxiety and stress; whereas negative schizotypy was found to be related to pleasure experiences, depression, and social functioning. 
In Study 2, 1083 college students from Study 1 completed questionnaires measuring empathy, social functioning, and schizotypy. The results showed that individuals with negative schizotypy reported significantly lower affective and cognitive empathy than individuals with positive schizotypy and healthy controls. Scores on both cognitive and affective empathy of individuals with positive schizotypy were similar to those of healthy controls. In addition, cognitive empathy was found to be a partial mediator of the association between negative schizotypy and social functioning. 
In Study 3, 76 participants were recruited from the large sample pool of Study 1, including mixed schizotypy (n=19), positive schizotypy (n=20), negative schizotypy (n=18) and healthy controls (n=19). The faux pas and the Yoni task were administered to all participants to examine their theory of mind performances. Although no significant differences were found among the groups on the theory of mind performances, correlational analyses showed that the theory of mind performances were significantly  associated with positive and disorganized dimensions of schizotypal traits.
In Study 4, whole brain voxel-based gray matter (GM) volume, white matter (WM) volume, fractional anisotrophy (FA) values and surface-based cortical thickness were compared among the 76 participants taking part in Study 3. For the mixed schizotypy, they showed reduced GM volumes in parahippocampus, superior/inferior temporal gyrus, precuneus, inferior parietal gyrus and insula. These participants also showed reduced WM volumes in superior longitudinal fasciculus(SLF) and cingulum bundles close to the hippocampus and larger cortical thickness in bilateral insula, right temporal pole. For the positive schizotypy, they showed higher FA on frontal and parietal parts of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and increased cortical thickness in parietal lobe. For the negative schizotypy, these participants demonstrated reduced cortical thickness in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Results from the partial correlation analysis using significant clusters of structural abnormalities of schizotypy showed that orbital frontal cortex and insula were consistently associated with the social cognition performances across all groups including the healthy controls.
In Study 5, the same group of participants taking part in Study 4 was invited to complete a functional imaging task that specifically examined the brain activation under both the empathy and theory of mind conditions. The results showed that under the theory of mind conditions, the negative schizotypy demonstrated a hypoactivation in insula, whereas the mixed schizotypy demonstrated a hyperactivation in anterior cingulate cortex compared to healthy controls.  However, no significant differences were found between subgroups of schizotypy and healthy controls under the empathy condition.
Taken together, the present findings indicated that individuals with negative schizotypy were characterized by poor social functioning and empathy ability. They also demonstrated brain structural and functional abnormalities as compared to healthy controls, including insula and orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, positive schizotypy showed intact empathy ability but a trend of deficit in theory of mind compared to healthy controls. Future studies should recruit participants across different stages of the illness including genetic and clinical high-risk individuals in order to further examine the trajectories of social cognition performances and its relationship to the development of psychosis.
学科领域认知神经科学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19720
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王毅. 分裂型特质与社会认知及其神经机制研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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