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儿童个体和群体分配公平性的发展及影响因素
其他题名Children’s individual and group distributive justice and its influencing factors
徐晓惠
学位类型博士
导师朱莉琪
2015-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词分配公平性 公平行为 公平感 公平判断 个体和群体 道德情绪归 因 共情
摘要分配公平性(distributive justice)关注的是当个体作为分配者、被分配者或旁观者时,是否能够依据公平准则分配所得利益或资源,或是对分配方案做出判断。分配公平性是幼儿道德发展的重要内容之一,也是其合作和分享行为发展的基础(LoBue, Nishida, Chiong, DeLoache, & Haidt, 2011)。研究发现,年幼儿童虽然已经掌握了公平原则,但并不能应用这些原则指导自己的行为,表现出公平行为与公平判断的分离。本研究从个体和群体两个角度探讨3-8 岁儿童分配公平性的发展及其差异。研究一使用资源分配范式,探讨儿童作为分配者、被分配者和旁观者等不同角色时的公平行为和公平判断的发展,综合考察儿童对平等、贡献、努力和需要等公平准则的理解和使用。研究二使用最后通牒博弈和独裁者博弈对比在相同性别和不同性别组合的三人群体中,儿童个体和群体的公平行为及公平感的发展变化及差异,并考察道德情绪归因、道德动机以及共情对群体分配公平性的影响。得到的主要研究结果如下:
1)随着年龄增长,儿童越来越公平和利他。3-4 岁儿童偏好利己性的分配,在卷入和非卷入情境中其公平判断出现分离;5-6 岁儿童在所有情境中都偏好平等分配,其公平行为和公平判断出现分离。7-8 岁儿童能够使用一致的公平准则进行判断和分配,没有出现分离现象。
2)不同年龄的儿童对平等、贡献、努力和需要四种公平原则赋予的权重不同。所有年龄段的儿童都会优先考虑平等原则。在3-8 岁期间,儿童对贡献原则的考虑越来越弱,对需要原则的考虑则越来越强。7-8 岁儿童在进行分配或是判断时越来越能够综合考虑多种公平原则。
3)当儿童作为提议者时,群体提议与个体提议存在差异。在独裁者博弈中,群体提议低于个体提议。在最后通牒博弈中,群体提议高于个体提议。
4)当儿童作为回应者时,儿童会接受平等和利于自己的不平等两种提议。对于对自己不利的不平等而言,在相同性别组合中,7-8 岁儿童比5-6 岁儿童更容易接受,女生比男生更容易接受,群体比个体更容易接受。
5)儿童的道德情绪归因能力、道德动机以及共情发展得越好,他们越有可能说服群体中的其他成员采纳自己的意见。
其他摘要Distributive justice concerns whether individuals could distribute benefits or make judgments about distributions in a just manner, regardless of their role as a proposer, a responder or a spectator. Distributive justice is one of the important aspects of children’s moral development and benefits to the maturity of children’s sharing and cooperative behavior (LoBue, Nishida, Chiong, DeLoache, & Haidt, 2011). The current study compared children’s individual and group performance in distributive justice within 3 to 8 years old children. In study 1, we used a resource allocation paradigm to investigate the development of children’s fair behavior and fair judgment when they were assigned as a distributor, a responder or a spectator, and describe children’s understanding and use of different fair norms, such as equality, merit, effort and need. Study 2 aimed to explore the differences of distributive justice between individual and group (three peers of the same gender or different genders). We employed two economic games, the ultimate game and the dictator game, to record children’s fair behavior (assigned as the proposer) and sense of fairness (assigned as the responder). We also investigated the influence of moral emotion attribution, moral motivation and empathy on children’s distributive justice when with other two peers. The main findings were as follows:
(1) Children tended to make equal decisions and concern partner’s need with the increasing of age. 3-4 years old children tended to give more resources to themselves, and their fair judgment were different whether their payoffs were involved or not. 5-6 years old children prefer divide equally in most scenarios, and there was a gap between their fair behavior and fair judgments. 7-8 years old children could use consistent fair norms no matter what to make judgments or divide resources, there was no separation among fair behavior, sense of fairness or fairness judgment.
(2) Children with different age put distinct weights on fair norms (equality, merit, effort and need) when they made a decision. Equality was the most frequently used principle in all children. From 3 to 8 years old, children tended to attach more weight on need rather than merit. Older children could use multiple fair norms when they divide resources or make a judgment.
(3) When children were assigned as the proposer in economic games, there was difference between their individual offers and group offers. In the dictator game, their group offers were lower than the individual offers. While in the ultimate game, their group offers were higher than their individual offers.
(4) When children were assigned as the responder in the ultimate game, they would accept the offers when the resource was equally divided or gave more to them. However, when paired with two same gender peers, and confronted with an offer which made them inferior to their partners, older children, rather than younger children, were more easily to accept the offer; girls, other than boys, were more easily to accept the offer; and children in group were more inclined to accept the offer after discussion with other children, compared to their individual decision.
(5) Children with high moral eomtion attribution ability, high moral motivation and high empathy was more competent to influence other peers to adopt their own decision.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19735
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
徐晓惠. 儿童个体和群体分配公平性的发展及影响因素[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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