|Alternative Title||The Effect of Affects with Different Motivational Intensity on Cognitive Breadth|
|Place of Conferral||北京|
|Keyword||动机强度 积极情绪 消极情绪 认知广度 心理距离|
|Abstract||情绪会影响认知广度。以往研究发现积极情绪扩展认知广度，而消极情绪窄化认知广度，研究者提出了情绪信息等价说和积极情绪的扩展-建构理论进行解释。而情绪的动机维度模型（Harmon-Jones & Gable，2010）认为情绪的动机强度会影响认知广度，具体表现为，高动机强度的情绪窄化认知广度，而低动机强度的情绪则扩展认知广度。本研究试图探究情绪影响认知广度的主要因素是情绪效价还是情绪的动机强度。|
本研究分两部分。研究一包含3 个实验，分别探究情绪在知觉水平和概念水平对认知广度的影响。实验1 采用目标前呈现给予或扣除不同数目积分的线索提示分别诱导不同动机强度的积极情绪或消极情绪，然后完成Flanker 任务，发现高动机强度情绪下对中心目标箭头方向反应更快，即窄化注意广度。实验2 通过同样方法诱导不同动机强度的积极情绪和消极情绪，要求被试完成NAVON 字母任务，发现低动机强度情绪下，个体对整体特征反应更快，而高动机强度情绪下，个体对整体特征和局部特征的反应时没有显著性差异。实验3 直接采用自传体记忆再现的方法分别诱导不同动机强度的典型积极情绪（兴奋与宁静）和消极情绪（愤怒与悲伤），并完成类别判断任务（Isen & Daubman, 1984），发现相比兴奋和愤怒组，宁静和悲伤情绪组倾向于认为非典型事例属于给定类别。行为结果一致表明是情绪的动机强度而非情绪效价影响认知广度，进一步验证了情绪的动机维度模型。
研究二探究情绪动机强度影响认知广度的原因是否是不同动机强度的情绪刺激具有不同心理距离感。研究二包含3 个实验，实验4a 采用时间二分任务，发现个体评估线索与高动机强度情绪刺激之间有较长的时间知觉，表明个体感知高动机强度情绪刺激具有较近的时间距离感，并发现个体感知消极刺激比积极刺激具有较近的时间距离感。实验4b 将情绪效价作为组内变量，采用同样任务，发现个体感知高动机强度情绪刺激具有较近的时间距离感，没有发现积极刺激与消极刺激间的时间距离差异。实验5 直接要求被试判断与不同动机强度的积极刺激（如“十元”和“百元”）的和消极刺激（如“蟒蛇”和“老鼠”）的距离，发现相比低动机强度的情绪刺激（“十元”和“老鼠”），个体感知高动机强度刺激（“百元”和“蟒蛇”）具有较近的空间距离。
|Other Abstract||It has been widely accepted that affects influence cognitive breadth. Researchers raised ‘Affect as Information’ and ‘Broaden-and-Built Theory of Positive Emotions’ to explain why positive affects can broaden cognitive scope. Recently the motivational dimensional model of affect was proposed to emphasize the influence of motivational intensity of affects on cognition. Specifically, the theory claims that affects of high motivation narrow the breadth of cognition, while affects of low motivation broaden the breadth of cognition. In this thesis, we attempt to explore whether it is emotional intensity of motivation or emotional valence which have|
effects on cognitive breath.
There are two studies in this thesis. Three experiments were conducted in study 1 to explore the influence of affects on cognitive breadth on perceptual and conceptual level. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the positive affects or negative affects with different motivational intensity by presenting cues which implied high/low win/ loss, and then participants were instructed to complete a Flanker task. Results showed that affects with high motivational intensity promotes participants’ responses to the central target. The procedure of Experiment 2 was the same as Experiment 1 except that participants were required to complete a NAVON task after the win/loss cues. When presented with cues of low motivational intensity (i.e. low loss or low win), participants responded faster to global feature than to local feature. However, there was no significant difference for participants to indentify global and local features when cues of high motivational intensity were presented. In Experiment 3, participants were asked to recall and write down the events of their own experiences to induce one of the four affects: excitement, serenity, anger or sadness, then to complete a categorization task. The results revealed that excited or angry participants rated lower scores for atypical items than serene or sad participants. The results consistently showed that the intensity of motivation rather than affect valence influence cognitive breadth, further validated the motivational dimensional model of affect.
In study 2, we aimed to investigate the effects of motivational intensity on psychological distance. In Experiments 4 and 5 a temporal bisection task was used and the results consistently showed that the stimulus of high motivational intensity was viewed as temporally closer. In Experiment 6, participants were asked to estimate the spatial distance between themselves and a cardboard on which emotional words of varied motivational intensities were written. We found that words of high motivational intensity were viewed as closer than words of low motivational intensity.
The results of study 2 suggest that motivational intensity has impacts on our perception of psychological distances. High intensity leads to short distance while low intensity results in long distance. Hence it could be a probable explanation to the effects of motivational intensity on cognitive breadth, since short distance means narrow scope while long distance suggests broad scope.
|许利慧. 情绪的动机强度对认知广度的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.|
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