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情绪背景的效价属性对微表情识别的影响及其机制
其他题名The Effect of Emotional Context on Micro-expression Recognition and Its Mechanism
张明
学位类型博士
导师傅小兰
2014-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词微表情 背景表情 效价 识别
摘要微表情是一种呈现时间非常短的、很难被人察觉的、带有一定情绪意义的细微表情,常常表达被压抑和隐藏的情绪情感,对这种短暂表情的识别有助于了解人们的真实情感。普通表情的识别研究发现,背景的情感效价对表情的识别有影响,然而这种影响在微表情的识别过程中是否也存在?本研究拟对这一问题进行考察。鉴于微表情产生的特点,开始、峰值、停止,整个过程持续的时间非常短,并且微表情也并非单独呈现,前后会伴随其他的普通表情,本研究通过一系列实验将微表情呈现前后的普通表情看作时间维度上的背景,通过控制这种背景的情感效价属性,考察背景效价对微表情识别产生的影响。
研究一考察情绪背景的效价属性是否对微表情的识别产生影响,并且在此基础上探讨这种影响产生的原因。通过四个行为实验发现背景效价影响微表情的识别,不同背景效价条件下的微表情识别存在显著差异。背景效价对微表情识别的这种影响受到所需识别的目标微表情的类型和呈现时间的调节,但不受背景表情本身呈现时间的调节。 而且,这种影响来自于背景表情与目标微表情刺激本身的差异及不同背景间效价信息的差异。 
研究二通过认知神经科学的方法进一步探讨这种影响产生的机制。通过脑电实验、功能核磁实验探讨这种背景效价影响产生的时间进程上的特点及与之相关的脑区。脑电实验表明不同效价的背景表情本身在加工过程上存在差异,中性背景表情相对于具有情感色彩的背景表情引发了更大的P300成分,而相同的目标微表情在不同的背景效价条件下的平均波幅存在差异,正性效价背景条件下的平均波幅要显著高于负性效价背景条件下的平均波幅,而且在正性效价背景条件下引发了更大的N200成分。此外,目标微表情在不同背景效价条件下主要在θ波和α波上存在差异。核磁实验发现相同的目标微表情在不同的背景效价条件下激活的脑区有所不同。对于愤怒和中性微表情,在负性效价背景条件下较中性效价背景条件下引起了顶下小叶的激活,而正性效价背景条件下较中性效价背景条件下引起了右侧楔前叶的激活。对于高兴微表情,正性背景效价条件下更多地激活了海马旁回。
本研究主要发现背景效价对微表情的识别有影响,不同的微表情在不同的背景效价条件下的识别存在差异,尤其负性效价背景表情不利于对微表情的识别,这种影响受到微表情类型的调节,并且具有一定的神经生理基础。本研究为人眼识别微表情影响因素提供了新的证据,也为更好地训练人眼识别微表情提供了理论基础。
其他摘要Micro-expression is an extremely quick facial expression with a certain emotional significance. It always embeds in the flow of expressions and occurs when people try to conceal or repress an emotion. Previous research suggests that micro-expressions are important cues for revealing true feelings and detecting deceptive behaviors. However, people usually have difficulties to detect or recognize micro-expressions. The previous research found that the effect of context valence in ordinary facial expression recognition. However, it is not clear whether there is also an effect of context valence in micro-expression recognition. The study focuses on the problem whether there is an effect of context valence on recognition of micro-expression. Given the characteristics of micro-expressions that the whole process of micro-expression lasts a very short duration including start, peak and stop, and accompanies by other facial expressions, this study will present a same facial expression as the chronological background before and after the micro-expression.  This design is modified from micro-expressions training tool (METT) that requires participants to recognize the target micro-expression presented briefly between two identical emotional faces. By controlling the emotional  valence, we investigate the effect of context valence on micro-expression recognition.
Study 1 investigates that whether there  is an effect of context valence on recognition of micro-expression and explores the causes of the effect. We found that there was also an effect of context valence in perception of micro-expression by  four  experiments.  The effect of emotional context on micro-expressions recognition was modulated by the type and the duration of micro-expressions. However, it had nothing to do with the duration of context expressions. By manipulating the stimuli difference between context and target expressions, we found that the context effect might be resulted from both the stimuli difference and the valence difference.
Study 2 further explores the mechanism of the effect by the methods of cognitive neuroscience. We investigate the characteristics of temporal process of the effect by ERP experiment and the related brain regions by fMRI experiment. The EEG experiment showed that there were different potencies of context expression in the process.  Neutral context expression induced a larger  P300  compared to emotional context expression.  The  average amplitude of same target micro-expression was significantly different in emotional contexts. Especially, the  average amplitude  of target micro-expression in negative  context was significantly  lower than it in  positive  context.  Similar micro-expression in positive context induced a larger N200 than it in negative context. In addition, time-frequency analysis showed the power of target micro-expressions in emotional contexts mainly differed in theta and alpha bands.  The fMRI experiment found that the same target micro-expression in different emotional context conditions  activated different brain regions. The target micro-expressions of anger and neutral activated more inferior parietal lobule in negative context, and activated more precuneus in positive context, than those in neutral context. The target micro-expression of happiness activated more parahippocampal gyrus.
To sum up, micro-expression recognition is influenced by context  valence.  Negative context even more impairs recognition of micro-expression. The effect of context valence was modulated by  micro-expression  types and  has some neurophysiological basis.  This study provided new evidence for recognition of micro-expressions and theoretical basis for training of human recognize micro-expressions.
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19762
专题中国科学院心理健康重点实验室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
张明. 情绪背景的效价属性对微表情识别的影响及其机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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