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组织分配不公情境下的第三方惩罚——愤怒情绪和道德公正感的作用
其他题名The Third Party Punishment under the Organizational Distribution Injustice Condition—— the Function of Anger and Deontic Justice
张珊珊
学位类型博士
2013-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词分配不公正 第三方惩罚 道德公正感 愤怒情绪
摘要组织分配不公正是指员工对组织或上级分配的结果不满意。同时,不公正不仅限于当事人自身感受的视角,还包括第三方视角中对他人是否受到公正对待的感知以及对感知到的不公正的反应。然而,综合组织分配不公正的国内外研究现状与成果,还鲜有研究从第三方的视角去探讨组织分配不公正的效应。因此,本研究采用第三方惩罚博弈作为基本任务范式,并使用独裁者博弈对组织分配不公行为进行诱导,在问题提出和假设的基础上共进行了五个实验研究,目的皆在探讨组织分配不公情境下第三方惩罚行为是否存在,以及存在的边界条件、理论支撑以及背后的心理机制。
研究1考察作为旁观者的第三方被试是否愿意牺牲1元的自身利益来惩罚独裁者。结果证明在组织不公情境下,大多数第三方被试会对独裁者采取惩罚措施。研究2在研究1的基础上加入绝对自我利益选项,结果第三方被试依然普遍会选择牺牲自身利益来惩罚独裁者。同时,发现相比于团队外的被试,更多团队内的被试倾向于选择与领导合作,而对领导进行惩罚的比率变小。研究3对分配不公程度与第三方惩罚水平之间的关系进行了检验。结果发现在组织分配不公程度不同时,第三方被试的惩罚水平也不同。
研究1和2从“质”的角度证明了人们普遍会对组织分配不公现象采取惩罚措施,而研究3从“量”的角度证明了人们的惩罚水平还会受到组织分配不公程度的影响。即惩罚不仅存在“有”和“无”的区别,也会存在量的差异。综合研究1-3的结果可见,在中国的组织分配不公情境下,存在第三方惩罚现象,且分配不公程度越高,惩罚水平越强。
研究4和研究5则对组织分配不公对第三方惩罚作用过程中的影响因素进行了探讨。结果研究4发现愤怒情绪在分配不公对第三方惩罚水平影响中起到部分中介作用。研究5发现道德责任在分配不公对第三方惩罚的影响中起到调节作用,同时道德责任在分配不公、愤怒情绪与第三方惩罚的中介作用中起到第一段的调节作用。
本研究的意义主要体现在理论、方法和实践三个方面:理论上,在组织分配不公情境下,进一步为公正理论模型的适用性提供支持证据。同时在一定程度上揭示了第三方惩罚行为背后的心理机制。方法上,尝试将陌生人情境下的经典第三方惩罚博弈范式在组织情境下进行改编,使用多种独裁者角色启动(包括团队人物模拟、团队任务操作和情境角色启动)和第三方惩罚博弈相结合起来研究第三方决策者对分配不公现象的惩罚行为。实践上,指导管理者如何创造公平、公正的企业文化氛围。
其他摘要Organizational distribution injustice is refers to the employees who are not satisfied with the distribution result of the organization or superior. Meanwhile, injustice is not limited to the parties’ feelings, also includes the perspective of a third party’ perception and response to the perceived injustice for the party. However, there were few studies to explore distribution injustice effect from the perspective of the third party through integrating the research situation and achievements of domestic and foreign. Therefore, this research adopted the third party punishment game as a basic task paradigm and used the dictator game to operate the allocation injustice of organization behavior. We conducted five experiments to verify our hypothesis on the basis of problem posing, the purpose was to explore if there is a third-party punishment behavior in the situation of organization unfair distribution, as well as the existence of boundary conditions, the theory support and the psychological mechanism behind them.
Study 1 inspected the third-party participants who were willing to sacrifice 1 Yuan of self-interest to punish dictator. Results proved that most of the third party participants will punitive actions to dictator in the situation of organizational inequality. Study 2 added an option of absolutely self interests on the basis of the study 1, results indicated that third party participants still choose to sacrifice their own interests to punish dictator. Meanwhile, the participants within the team tended to choose to cooperation with leaders more than with the participants from the outside of team, and less to punish the leaders. Study 3 examined the relationship between the degree of distribution injustice and third party punishment, and found the different degree unfair of distribution will lead to different levels of punishment.
Study 1 and study 2 proved widely to the punishment phenomenon for the unfair distribution from the perspective of "quality", and study 3 showed people's punishment level will be affected by the organization degree of inequality from the view of "quantity". The punishment not only exist the difference between "have" and  "no", but also has the amount of differences. Therefore, there is a third party punishment phenomenon in the unfair distribution situation of Chinese organization through study 1-3, and the degree of inequality is higher, the level of punishment is stronger.
Study 4 and study 5 discussed the influencing factors in the influence of distribution injustice to third party punishment. Results of the study 4 found that anger partially explained the effect of distribution injustice on third party punishment. The study 5 found that moral responsibility played a moderating role of distribution injustice on third party punishment. At the same time, moral responsibility played a first stage mediated moderation effect among distribution injustice, anger and third party punishment.
The significance of this study is mainly embodied in the theory, method and practice aspects. In theory, results of the third party punishment phenomenon provides supporting evidence for the applicability to the deontic theory of organization justice, and reveals the psychological mechanism behind the behavior of the third party punishment to a certain extent. In method, we recomposed the third-party punishment game in the stranger situation to the organization situation, combined a variety of dictator role start (including team character modeling, team task operation and situational role operation) and third party punishment game to study the punitive behavior behind the third party decision makers to the phenomenon of unfair distribution. In practice, to guide managers how to create corporate culture atmosphere of fair and just.
学科领域医学心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19767
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
张珊珊. 组织分配不公情境下的第三方惩罚——愤怒情绪和道德公正感的作用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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