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重读和预期对口语理解中时间选择性注意的影响
Alternative TitleHow Accentuation and Prediction Influence Temporally Selective Attention during On-Line Spoken Language Comprehension
赵海燕
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor李晓庆
2014-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline心理学
Keyword重读 口语加工 时间选择性注意 预期
Abstract口语语流在时间维度上迅速展开,它的信息迅速消失和快速更新,人们不可能将接收到的所有信息都做一个比较细致的加工。此时,人们需要有选择地加工相对重要的信息,即合理地运用“时间选择性注意”(selective temporal attention)优化自己的认知资源分配。口语语流中,选择性注意同时受自下而上的信息(如,重读)和自上而下的信息(如,预期)影响。但是,我们尚不清楚,在口语理解过程中,自上而下的信息(如,预期)和自下而上的信息(如,重读)如何共同影响注意资源在时间维度上的分配。本研究主要从以下三个方面考察这一问题:重读如何影响早期的时间选择性注意过程,重读的这种注意分配效应是否受到声调的影响;在重读的当前时间点上,重读和预期在时间选择性注意过程中如何、何时相互作用;在重读之后的时间点上,重读和预期如何影响时间选择性注意的时间历程。本研究采用音素探测范式,运用脑电技术考察以上问题。
本研究得出了以下结论:
1、在自然的口语理解过程中,重读能够快速的调控早期选择性注意的分配,并影响接下来的语义加工的深度。
2、自下而上的因素(重读)和自上而下的因素(预期)都会影响口语加工中时间选择性注意的分配,并且二者的交互作用在语义加工之前就已经表现出来。
3、在重读之后的时间点上,对于词汇内(高预期)条件下的信息来说,重读能够快速抑制其注意资源的分配,但是不影响它的语义加工;对于词汇间(低预期)条件下的信息来说,重读没有抑制其早期注意资源的分配,但是影响了它的语义提取和语义整合过程。
Other AbstractSpeech signals provide a large amount of information and unfold rapidly in time, which presents significant challenges to the auditory perception and comprehension systems. Listeners mustdetermine which time point of the rapidly changing acoustic signals need to be processed in detail. Temporally selective attention, therefore, would be critical for speech comprehension, since it can help to allocate attentional resources to time windows that contain more important information.A striking feature of selective attention is that it depends not only on the “bottom-up” sensory information, such as salience, but also on “top-down” signals, such as our prior knowledge or predictions. To investigate this question, three key issues are involved in this research. Firstly: how accentuation influences the allocation of temporally selective attention during on-line spoken language comprehension, and how the effect of accentuation on attention allocation changes with lexical tones. Secondly: at the accented words, how and when top-down semantic prediction interacted with bottom-up acoustic signal in temporally selective attention during speech comprehension. Thirdly: after the accented words, how accentuation and long-term memory further influence selective attention during spoken language comprehension. This research used ERP technique and attention probe paradigm.
The main results were:
1. Accentuation could rapidly modulate temporally selective attention and influence the depth of subsequent semantic processing.
2. Both top-down semantic prediction and bottom-up acoustic signal could affect temporally selective attention during speech comprehension. And they interacted with each other before the time window of semantic processing.
3. For the information following the accented words, when the information was in high prediction context(within-word), accentuation could inhibit the allocation of early attention, but had no effect on its semantic processing;
when the information was in low prediction context(between-word), accentuation didn’t affect the allocation of early selective attention, but it influenced the semantic processing or intergration of the following information.
Subject Area基础心理学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19777
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Affiliation中国科学院心理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
赵海燕. 重读和预期对口语理解中时间选择性注意的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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