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视频游戏对老年人认知功能的影响及其脑机制
其他题名The Effects of Video Game on Cognitive Function of Older Adults and Its Brain Mechanism
朱幸婷
学位类型硕士
导师李会杰
2015-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词视频游戏 老年人 认知功能 任务态功能磁共振成像 额顶控制网络
摘要视频游戏是指使用某一类需要借助视听设备并基于一定剧情进行操作的游戏。视频游戏走入公众视野的三十多年来,越来越多的研究者探讨了视频游戏对于认知功能的影响。研究者认为视频游戏是一种有效的训练方法,因为它具有成功的认知训练范式:任务多样性、实时反馈、快速适应和较高的动机。本论文考察了视频游戏使用对成年人特别是老年人认知功能的影响及其脑机制,共分为三个研究。
研究一采用元分析的方法系统探讨了视频游戏训练研究对老年人及青年人认知能力的影响。我们对目标人群为老年人和青年人的视频游戏训练研究进行了系统的搜索,通过严格的纳入和排除标准,最终有22项研究被纳入元分析。被试共612人。其中,被试为青年人的研究12项,共324人,被试为老年人的研究10项,共288人。结果表明:(1)对于总体人群,相比于对照组,训练组的加工速度、注意和总体认知功能的效果量达到了中等水平,视空间加工和执行控制的效果量接近中等;(2)对于老年人群,相比于对照组,训练组的加工速度、注意、执行控制和总体认知功能的效果量均达到了中等,视空间加工的效果量为接近中等;(3)对于青年人群,相比对照组,训练组注意的效果量达到了中等水平,视空间加工、执行控制和总体认知功能的效果量达到接近中等水平。
研究二采用行为实验的方法,探讨视频游戏使用对认知功能(包括加工速度、视空间加工、注意、执行控制和记忆)成年毕生发展的影响。我们对75名视频VGP(Video Game Player,VGP)(25名老年人,15名中年人,35名青年人)和79名非视频VGP(Non-Video Game Player,NVGP)(32名老年人,20名中年人,27名青年人)进行认知测试。结果表明:(1)视频游戏组在加工速度、视空间加工、注意和执行控制上表现优于对照组,在记忆上两组无差异;(2)相对中年人和青年人,老年人的认知功能效果量更大。
研究三采用任务态磁共振成像的方法探讨视频游戏对老年人执行控制影响的脑机制。该研究选用了研究二中的老年被试22名,分别是11名VGP和11名NVGP,分析在Flanker任务下两组被试脑激活特点及差异。结果表明:(1)相比对照组,游戏组激活更多的团块分布在右脑中央前回、额中回、中央后回和颞中回;(2)相比对照组,游戏组激活更少的团块主要在左脑中央后回。
综合三个研究,本论文有以下结论:(1)老年人在视频游戏中的受益最多,青年人次之,中年人受益最小;(2)对VGP来说,加工速度和执行控制提升最多,注意和视空间加工次之,记忆未得到提升;(3)老年VGP执行控制提高与额顶控制网络的激活变化有关。
本论文分别从元分析、行为实验和脑成像实验的研究角度,综合探索了视频游戏对于老年人认知功能的影响及其脑机制。该结果对于完善认知训练理论和延缓认知下降有重要参考意义。
其他摘要Video Game is a kind of game that uses audio-visuo equipment and operates according to a certain scenario. Since the video game came to the public thirty years ago, increasing researchers investigated the effect of video game on cognition. Due to the video game was charactered with multi-task, timely feedback, quick adaption and high motivation;it was thought to be an effection intervention to cogntion. In this thesis, we investigatedthe effects of video game on cognition to adults and its neural mechanism. There are three studies in this thesis.
Study One is a meta-analysis study exploring the congitive effects of video game intervention on young and older adults. We searchedvideo game intervention studies targeting at young adults and older adults. According to stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria, 22 studies with 612 participants were included. Among them, 12 studies targerted at young adults(324 in total)and 10 studies targeted at older adults(288 in total). The results indicated that: (1)For the overall population, the effect size of overall congtion, processing speed and attention were middle to large; the effect sizesof executive control and visuospatial ability were close to middle; (2)For older adults, the effect sizesof overall congtion, processing speed,executive control and attention were middle to large; the effect size of visuospatial ability was close to middle; (3)For the young adults, the effect sizes of attention was middle to large; the effect size of overall congtion, processing speed, executive control and visuospatial ability were close to middle.
Study Two aims to investigate the effects of video gameuseon adults’ cognition. We recruited 75 video game players (VGP)and 79 non-video game players (NVGP). There were 25 older adults, 15 middle-aged adultsand 35 young adults in the VGP group , and32 older adults, 20 middle-aged adultsand 27 young adults in the NVGP group. All the participants were tested with a comprehensive set of congnitive tests. The results were as follows: (1)theVGP groupperformed better than the NVGP group in executive function, attention, processing speed and visuospatial ability. No significantdifferences were found in memory between the two groups;(2)comparedwith middle-agedadults and young adults, older adultsbenefited most fromvideo game play.
Study Three is a task-fMRI study aiming to find the neural basis of the improvement in executive control in olderVGP. We chose 22 olderadults from study two to participate in this study, in which 11 were VGP and 11were NVGP. We analysed their brain activation during a Flanker task. The results showed that: (1)compared to NVGP, VGP showed more activation in right precentral gyrus, rightmedial frontal gurus, right postcentral gurus and medial temporal gyrus; (2)compared to NVGP, VGP activated lessin left postcentral gurus.
According to these3 studies, we came into the following conclusions: (1)Older adultsbenefited more from video game play than young adults, while middle-aged adultsdid not show benefits. (2)Processing speed and executive control improved most, next wasvisuospatial ability, while memory did not improvefrom video game play. (3)The improvement of executive controlin older VGP was related to the change of activation in frontoparietal network.
This thesis used multi-level study methods including meta-analysis, behavioral and brain imagingto study the effects of video game on older adults’ cognitionand its brainmechanism. The present findings will play an important role in exploring the effective methods for improving the older adults’ cognitionand delaying cognitive decline.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19791
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
朱幸婷. 视频游戏对老年人认知功能的影响及其脑机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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