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7-14岁儿童无意视盲的发展及其与流体智力、工作记忆的关系
其他题名The Development of Inattentional Blindness in 7-14-year-old Children and its Relationship with Fluid Intelligence and Working memory
张慧
学位类型博士
导师施建农 ; 张兴利
2016-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词无意视盲 流体智力 工作记忆 视觉工作记忆 智力超常儿童
摘要当关注于某个物体或事件时,人们往往会对显著的、非预期的其它刺激视而不见,这种现象被称为“无意视盲”。它在现实生活中普遍存在,在应用领域也是造成许多意外事故的主要原因。为了进一步了解儿童阶段个体对这种非预期刺激的觉察规律以及和个体本身认知能力的关系,本研究通过采用经典的动态无意视盲范式——字母撞边任务,首先考察了7-14 岁儿童无意视盲的发展特点,同时,通过对无意视盲与流体智力、工作记忆的相关分析,分别单独考察了无意视盲与这两种认知能力的关系,并且在智力超常儿童群体进一步验证了这些关系,最后,在13-14 岁年龄段儿童中共同考察了流体智力与工作记忆这两种认知能力对无意视盲的预测作用,并且进一步探讨了视觉工作记忆在其中可能存在的作用。获得以下主要结果:
(1)7-14 岁期间,儿童的无意视盲率并未呈现显著的发展差异,是否产生无意视盲与个体在当前主任务中的表现无关。
(2)7-8 岁时,儿童的流体智力对无意视盲具有一定的预测作用,流体智力低的个体更可能产生无意视盲;而9-14 岁期间,是否产生无意视盲与个体的流体智力水平不存在直接关联,该结果在11-12 岁智力超常儿童群体中得到了进一步验证,即该年龄段智力超常儿童的无意视盲率与普通儿童并不存在显著差异。
(3)9-14 岁期间,儿童的无意视盲与工作记忆不存在直接关联,该结果在11-12 岁智力超常儿童群体中得到了进一步验证,即不同工作记忆水平的智力超常儿童的无意视盲率并不存在显著差异。
(4)13-14 岁时,流体智力和工作记忆相关显著,并且流体智力和工作记忆可以共同预测无意视盲,流体智力可以负向预测无意视盲,而工作记忆可以正向预测无意视盲。
(5)13-14 岁时,视觉工作记忆与无意视盲无关,而视觉工作记忆与流体智力、工作记忆均相关显著,并且,当控制视觉工作记忆时,流体智力与工作记忆相关不显著。
综上所述,我们认为,资源有限机制并不能完全解释7-14 岁期间儿童无意视盲的发展特点,无意视盲是否存在发展差异取决于该现象产生时的任务与刺激属性;年龄是调节无意视盲与流体智力、工作记忆关系的一个重要因素,在7-14岁期间,低年龄段儿童流体智力与无意视盲关系紧密,而高龄段儿童,流体智力与工作记忆之间的相互关系对无意视盲也存在一定影响,流体智力与工作记忆在儿童对动态非预期刺激的觉察率上的作用并不一致;无意视盲同时受自上而下和自下而上注意调节,无意视盲与个体本身认知能力的关系相对复杂,仅从认知能力方面来考察儿童无意视盲的个体差异并不充分;智力超常儿童是否比普通儿童更易“分心”于额外刺激与其当前主任务难度有关,当智力超常儿童与普通儿童在主任务上不存在差异,他们也并不比普通儿童更易觉察到非预期刺激。
其他摘要People usually fail to see a distinctive but unexpected object when they focus on some other things. This phenomenon is termed as inattentional blindness (IB). It is a pervasive aspect of visual perception and has been frequently cited as causal in human errors, leading to a wide variety of accidents. The current research investigated the developmental difference of IB and its relationship with cognitive abilities such as fluid intelligence and working memory. First, we studied the developmental difference in 7-to14-year-old children. Then, we studied the relationship between IB and fluid intelligence, working memory in different age groups. In addition, we applied intellectually gifted children to test these relationships. Finally, we used regression to predict IB from fluid intelligence and working memory and explored the role of visual working memory in this prediction. The main results are as following:
1.There is no significant developmental differences in IB rates among children during 7-to14-year-old. The performance on primary task is not related with IB.
2.Fluid intelligence could significant predict IB in 7-to 8-year-old children. It implied that the individuals with high fluid intelligence are more possibility to avoid IB. However, there is no significant relationship between fluid intelligence and IB in 9-to14-year-old children. This result has been verified in intellectually gifted children, which showed that no significant difference occurred in IB rates between intellectually gifted and average children.
3.There is no significant relationship between working memory and IB in 9-to14-year-old children. This result has been verified in intellectually gifted children, which showed that no significant difference in IB rates occurred between different level of working memory in intellectually gifted children.
4.Fluid intelligence is significant related to working memory in 13-to 14-year-old children. These two cognitive abilities could significant predict IB together, but the predictions of them were opposite.
5.Visual working memory is not related with IB in 13-to 14-year-old children.But visual working memory is significant related with fluid intelligence and working memory. When visual working memory is controlled, the significant relationship between fluid intelligence and working memory no longer existed.
Above all, the mechanism of limited resource can not totally explain the developmental difference on IB. Whether this phenomenon exist developmental difference depends on the attributes of the primary task and unexpected stimuli. In addition, age is an important factor on the relationship between the cognitive abilities and inattentional blindness. During the age from 7 to 14-year-old, there is close relationship between fluid intelligence and inattentional blindness in younger age. However, the interrelationship between fluid intelligence and working memory affect the relationship between them to inattentional blindness. The phenomenon of inattentional blindness affects by top-down and down-top attention meanwhile.Therefore, the relationships between inattentional blindness and cognitive abilities are complex. Moreover, when no difference emerged in primary task, intellectually gifted children would not be more possible to detect unexpected stimuli.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19825
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
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张慧. 7-14岁儿童无意视盲的发展及其与流体智力、工作记忆的关系[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.
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