|其他题名||The representation and processing of ambiguity words in Chinese|
|关键词||词汇加工 词汇表征 词汇歧义 语素歧义 眼动|
研究二考察了发生在语素水平的歧义复合词的加工与表征。在实验4 和5 中，考察了在中文阅读中，首字歧义语素的中文视觉复合词在加工早期采取整词语义还是语素语义优先通达的加工方式。我们采用边界范式，操纵了复合词尾字语素的预视，使其可以偏向首字语素的主要义项（主要义项预视）或次要义项（次要义项预视）。实验4 的实验结果发现，与次要义项预视条件相比，读者在主要义项预视条件下在目标词上的注视时间更短。实验5 操纵了预视词与目标词的整词语义相似性后，发现当预视词与目标词之间存在高整词语义相关时，主要义项预视条件下的注视时间显著短于次要义项预视下的注视时间。但是，当预视词与目标词在整词水平是低语义相关时，这种预视的促进效应消失了。两个实验的结果表明，在中文阅读过程中，视觉复合词的整词语义会在早期被优先激活。在实验6 中，采用了词汇情境范式考察了孤立听觉复合词中的语素加工及其时间进程。
|其他摘要||Lexical ambiguity is a universal phenomenon in languages. For Chinese words,the lexical ambiguity occurs not only at the word level but also at the morphemic level. This paper aimed to investigate how different levels of semantic ambiguity influence the processing and representation of Chinese words.|
In the first study, we explored the processing and representation of Chinese words with semantic ambiguity occurring at the word level. To be more specifically, in three separate experiments, we used eye-tracking technique to investigate whether senses of polysemous words and meanings of homonymous words are represented and processed similarly or differently in Chinese reading. Readers read sentences containing homonymous words (Experiment 1), polysemous words (Experiment 2), or both (Experiment 3). The contexts of text preceding the target words were manipulated to bias the participants toward reading the ambiguous words according to their dominant, subordinate, or neutral meanings. Similarly, disambiguating regions following the target words were also manipulated to favor either the dominant or subordinate meanings of ambiguous words. The results of these three experiments showed that there were similar eye movement patterns when Chinese participants read sentences containing homonymous and polysemous words. The study also found that participants took longer to read the target word and the disambiguating text following it when the prior context and disambiguating regions favored divergent meanings rather than the same meaning. These results suggested that homonymy and polysemy are represented similarly in the mental lexicon when a particular meaning (sense) is fully specified by disambiguating information. Furthermore, multiple meanings (senses) are represented in Chinese reading as separate entries in the mental lexicon.
In the second study, we explored the processing and representation of compound words with morphemic ambiguity. Specifically, in Experiment 4 and 5, we examined whether the morphological decomposition route or the direct whole-word access route is the primary processing route during processing of visual compound words. Using boundary paradigm, the preview of the second character was manipulated to bias either the dominant or the subordinate meaning of the first character. Results of Experiment 4 showed that the fixation durations in the subordinate condition was longer than those in the dominant condition. In Experiment 5, the semantic similarity occurring at the whole-word level between the preview words and target words was manipulated. Results showed that fixation durations in the dominant condition was shorter than those in the subordinate condition when the preview word was highly semantically related with the target words. However, this facilitation effect was absent when the preview words were lowly semantically related with the target words. These results showed that the whole-word meaning was activated earlier in the processing of compound word in reading. In Experiment 6, we employed a printed-word paradigm to investigate the processing of auditory compound words and found that both morphemic and wholeword competitors attracted more fixations than the distractor. More importantly, results of the time-course analysis showed that the morphemic meaning was activated earlier than that of the whole-word meaning, suggesting that the importance of morphological decomposition route in the recognition of isolated auditory compound word.
In summary, the processing of words with lexical ambiguity are affected by both contextual information and meaning frequency. The semantic relatedness among meanings (senses) do not influence the lexical representation of words. And both homonymous and polysemous words are represented as separate lexical entries in the mental lexicon. In addition, we also found that the whole-word meaning of compound words was activated earlier for visual compound words during reading. And the morphemic meaning of compound words was activated earlier than the whole-word meaning in the recognition of isolated auditory compound word. There results indicated that Chinese compounds in different modalities are processed via different processing routes.
|申薇. 中文歧义词汇的表征与加工研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.|
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