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书写经验对学前儿童文字专家化加工的影响
其他题名The effects of writing training on emergence and development of visual word expertise processing in preliterate children
赵佩
学位类型博士
导师翁旭初 ; 李甦
2015-11
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词学前儿童 汉字 书写经验 训练 文字专家化加工
摘要成熟阅读者的脑内存在对文字进行熟练加工的视觉专家化加工系统。通过儿童特别是学前儿童来研究文字加工能力的发生与发展是阐明这一专家化系统形成过程的直接途径。尽管已有大量来自拼音文字的相关研究,但对学习汉字这一在字形、拼写规则上与拼音文字存在很多不同之处的中国学前儿童的研究仍很缺乏。
由于汉字字形的复杂性,书写经验对汉语儿童阅读能力的发展具有重要的影响。特别是在早期文字学习阶段,儿童对汉字书写笔顺的学习可能对阅读能力的发展更为重要。但迄今为止,还未有研究系统探查书写经验对儿童文字专家化加工发展的影响。本研究通过设定视觉识别学习、自由抄写及按笔顺抄写三种训练方式,采用行为实验和脑电事件相关电位技术,考察短期文字学习经验对中国学前儿童文字专家化加工的影响,并重点探讨儿童的书写经验(自由抄写和按笔顺抄写)对其文字专家化加工的影响。
35名5岁没有接受过正式阅读训练的低识字量学前儿童参加了研究。在评估和匹配他们认知能力的基础上,将其分配到三种条件下接受文字学习训练。各组人数相当。第一组为视觉学习(VL)组,儿童通过视觉识别的方式学习汉字,在训练的过程中不需要练习写字;第二组为自由抄写(FW)组,儿童通过自由抄写汉字的方法学习汉字,但对他们写字的方式不做要求;第三组为笔顺抄写(SW)组,在训练过程中儿童学习按照正确的笔顺抄写汉字。每组儿童均进行4周训练,学习时间共计100分钟。在训练过程中采用一系列行为测查追踪评估儿童的学习效果。研究者在训练前、训练后和训练结束2个月后的三个时间点,从行为和电生理水平,考察三种训练方式对儿童文字专家化的粗略加工(研究一,汉字对面孔,汉字对工具线条图的选择性)和精细加工(研究二,汉字对似字材料的选择性)的影响。
主要研究结果显示:在接受4周的文字学习训练后,各组儿童的汉字再认能力迅速提高,说明短期文字学习训练产生了显著的学习效果。在文字专家化的粗略加工方面,经短期视觉学习,右半球枕颞区汉字诱发的N170波幅显著升高,在双侧大脑半球都迅速出现了对汉字专家化的粗略加工效应(汉字N170波幅高于工具线条图N170波幅)。自由抄写组在学习前后没有显示出汉字N170波幅的明显变化。笔顺抄写组的儿童在学习后,左半球迅速出现了对汉字专家化的粗略加工效应(汉字N170波幅高于工具线条图N170波幅)。但是,视觉学习和笔顺学习后迅速出现的文字专家化粗略加工效应在训练后的2个月内消退。在文字专家化的精细加工方面,在短期训练后,视觉学习组儿童的右侧大脑半球的枕颞区迅速出现了对汉字专家化的精细加工效应(汉字N170波幅显著高于线条组合N170波幅)。自由抄写组儿童也在右侧大脑半球的枕颞区迅速出现了对汉字专家化的精细加工效应(汉字N170波幅高于线条组合与部件组合的N170波幅)。而笔顺学习组的儿童则没有观测到文字专家化精细加工的效应。视觉学习和自由抄写组迅速出现的文字专家化精细加工均在训练结束后的2个月消退。
本研究结果表明,在中国的5岁学前儿童中,短期的视觉识别学习经验能够促使汉字专家化加工的迅速萌发,显示出了跨文化的一致性。书写经验独特地促进了右半球文字专家化精细加工的出现。学习笔顺的经验对文字专家化的萌发存在影响,能促使大脑左半球迅速出现文字专家化加工的效应。本研究的发现为了解文字专家化加工的萌发和发展机制提供了重要的实证数据,进一步支持了文字专家化加工系统是在后天经验与大脑发育的交互作用过程中形成的。
其他摘要 Visual word expertise processing is a highly specialized brain function in skilled readers. How such a specialized system formed is still an open question. Investigating the emergence and development of this expertise system in preliterate children provides a direct way to answer such question. Although the development of visual expertise system in the alphabetic scripts has been well documented, there is rare comprehensive evidence for the development the visual word expertise in Chinese children who are learning to read Chinese characters which have distinct visual and linguistic features with alphabetic scripts.
Because of the complex visual form of Chinese characters, writing is more important for Chinese children’s reading skill acquisition. Moreover, the writing sequence in writing Chinese characters is more crucial for reading learning, especially for children who are at the beginning phase of learning to read. However, to date, little work had been conducted on the impacts of writing experience on the development of word expertise processing. Thus, the current study aims to investigate the influence of short-term character learning experience, especially writing training, on visual word expertise processing in Chinese preschool children. Three training conditions were designed: visual identification training, free writing and sequence writing training.
Thirty-five 5-year-old children with little reading experience were recruited. These children were equally divided into 3 groups with their cognitive abilities matched and received different trainings respectively. The children in Visual Learning group learned characters by merely visually identifying characters without any writing practice. The children in Free Writing group were required to copy characters freely during training without any requirement of writing sequence. The children in Sequence Writing group were required to learn to write with the standard stroke sequence. The whole training period contain 4 training sessions in 4 weeks (100 minutes in total). The learning effects during training process were examined with a serial of behavioral tests. Behavioral and electrophysiological tests were performed repeatedly at 3 times points: before training, 1 week after training and 2 months after training. The effects of learning experience on the coarse tuning effect of visual word expertise processing (Study1, N170 selectivity between characters and cartoon faces and N170 selectivity between character and line drawing tools), and the fine tuning effect of visual word expertise processing (Study2, N170 selectivity between characters and character-like stimuli) were systematically examined.
The main results showed that through the four weeks of training, character recognition ability increased rapidly in all the participants, indicating that the shore-term trainings are effective. In terms of the coarse visual word expertise effect, after short visual identification training, the N170 amplitude evoked by characters over the right occipital-temporal area was significantly enhanced. And the coarse tuning visual word expertise effect emerged bilaterally rapidly (selectivity for characters over tools). The N170 selectivity for characters did not revealed significant changes after free writing training. After sequence writing training, coarse tuning visual word expertise effect emerged rapidly in the left hemisphere (selectivity for characters over tools). The rapidly emerged coarse tuning visual word expertise effect after visual learning and sequence writing training vanished after 2 months. In terms of the fine tuning visual word expertise effect, after visual identification training, the coarse tuning visual word expertise effect emerged rapidly in the right hemisphere (selectivity for characters over line-combinations). After free writing training, the coarse tuning visual word expertise effect also emerged rapidly in the right hemisphere (selectivity for characters over line-combinations and radical-combinations). The N170 selectivity for characters did not revealed significant changes after sequence writing training. The rapidly emerged fine tuning visual word expertise effect after visual learning and free writing training vanished after 2 months.
In summary, in Chinese preschool children as young as 5-year-old, short term character learning experience can prompt rapid emergence of visual word expertise effect, suggesting the emergence of visual word expertise processing is consistent across different writing systems. Writing experience can facilitate the emergence of visual word expertise effect, especially the fine tuning visual word expertise effect. The experience of stroke sequence writing prompts the emergence of coarse tuning effect in the left hemisphere.
The current findings provided important empirical evidence for the understanding of the emergence and development of visual word expertise processing, and consistent with the view that the word expertise processing system is formed during the dynamic interaction between experience and brain maturation.
学科领域认知神经科学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19831
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
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赵佩. 书写经验对学前儿童文字专家化加工的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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