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语音和正字法信息对汉字书写产生过程的影响及其发展特点
其他题名The Influence of orthographic and phonologic information on the process of handwriting – a development perspective
冯臣
学位类型硕士
导师张清芳
2016-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词书写产生 语音中介假设 正字法 部件
摘要书写产生是指人们将头脑中的思想转化成笔迹的一种言语活动。在心理语言学领域,书写产生研究中的一个重要问题是,语音信息和正字法信息是如何对书写产生的过程产生影响的。书写过程可以分为两个阶段:计划阶段和执行阶段。在以往对书写产生的实验研究中,大多只测量了书写潜伏期,因而只探测到了书写前的计划阶段,缺少对执行过程的研究。本研究将同时考察书写的计划过程和执行过程,从而更全面的探索语音和正字法信息对书写认知加工机制的影响,同时通过对儿童书写获得过程的研究,从发展角度来对这一问题进行探索。
研究一通过两个实验探索了语音和正字法信息在小学生书写的不同阶段中的影响。实验一采用图词干扰范式对正字法信息和整字水平的语音信息在图片命名中的激活进行了研究,仅发现正字法在2 年级和4 年级小学生汉字书写的计划阶段的激活。实验二采用抄写任务,发现规则性在2 年级和4 年级小学生的书写过程产生了不同的模式,而4 年级小学生的规则性效应更接近成人书写的研究结果。研究一的结果表明,在汉字书写获得早期,主要是正字法信息的激活,而语音信息的作用产生于获得的较晚阶段。
研究二探索了部件这一正字法单元在书写中的作用。首先在实验3 和实验4中发现了成人书写中的部件边界效应,同时也发现部件复杂度对书写的计划过程和执行过程产生了影响。然后通过实验5 和实验6,在2 年级和4 年级小学生的书写中发现了延迟的部件边界效应,说明至少从2 年级开始,儿童已经能够以部件为单位来组织其书写过程。部件的复杂度和儿童对部件的主观熟悉度对书写的计划过程和执行过程也产生了影响。
研究三采用学习任务,分别考察了有语音提示和有正字法提示的学习条件相对于无提示条件的学习效果,发现有正字法提示条件的学习效果最好,表现为书写潜伏期更短,书写中停顿时间更短。
本研究通过三个研究,支持了正字法信息和语音信息在儿童的汉字书写产生中的重要作用。儿童在学习书写的早期,首先习得的是字形层面的知识,并形成了以部件为单位的加工模式。部件的笔画数和熟悉度影响了书写的计划阶段和执行阶段。语音信息在儿童书写中的影响发生的比较晚,并且体现为亚字水平的语音加工。这种加工对书写的计划阶段和执行阶段也都有影响。本研究结合汉语的特点,对正字法和语音在汉字书写中的作用及其发展特征进行了更全面的探索。
其他摘要Written production is a process of transformation from mind to the actual trace of  pen. In the field of psycholinguistic, one of the most important question is how do the phonologic and orthographic information influence the process of handwriting. The process of handwriting can be divided into two stages: the planning stage and the execution stage. Previous studies mainly focus on the planning stage and only take latency as the dependent factor, while the actual execution stage is ignored. This study will investigate both the planning stage and the execution stage from a development perspective with studies on the writing of children in different age, in order to give a comprehensive understanding on handwriting production.
Study 1 explored the influence of orthography and phonology on the planning and execution stages of primary school students’ writing. With a picture-word interference paradigm, experiment 1 found the orthographic effect only on latency but not on writing duration in the writing of grade 2 and grade 4. Besides, the phonology effect was not found for both stages in both grades. Experiment 2 explored the sublexical phonology information through the regularity effect, and found a different pattern of regularity on the planning stage and the execution stage grade 2 and grade 4. The regularity effect in the writing of grade 4 was comparable to adults. The results of study 1 showed a stable orghographic effect across grades and a later generated phonology effect.
Study 2 explored the role of radical plays in handwriting. Experiment 3 found a significant decrease of stroke velocity on the boundary of radical. Experiment 4 found the complexity of radical could affect the latency and velocity of writing in real and pseudo characters. The result of experiment 5 replicated experiment 3 and showed that radical complexity had an influence on the latency and velocity of children’s writing, and experiment 6 found the subjective familiarity of radical could also modulate the planning and execution stage of children’s writing. Meanwhile, in experiment 5 and 6, the influence of radical showed a similar pattern on the writing of grade 2 and grade 4 children. In sum, results of study 2 supported the modulation of radical information on writing in the early stage of handwriting acquisition.
Study 3 used an instructed learning task to evaluate the effect of three kind of learning condition on writing acquisition, and found that the orthographic instructed condition caused the most effective learning outcome, but only on the latency and pause duration in writing.
The main findings support the important role of orthographic information on writing Chinese characters from the early stage of writing acquisition. Children should pay more attention on the orthographic structure of characters, so the planning stage and execution stage is affected by the radical. The phonologic information, however, begin to modulate written production from a relatively later stage. This may be attributed to the unique orthography-phonology mapping rule of Chinese characters. To sum up, this study showed the development characteristic of the influence of orthographic and phonologic information on writing acquisition.
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19861
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国人民大学心理学系
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
冯臣. 语音和正字法信息对汉字书写产生过程的影响及其发展特点[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.
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