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颜色的物理属性和心理效应 ——纸币辨别、设计偏好及使用
其他题名Psychophysical attribute and the psychological effects of color: the distinctiveness of and people’s preference for banknotes design
张玉静
学位类型博士
导师韩布新
2016-04
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词纸币设计 颜色偏好 颜色心理学 辨别 眼动
摘要颜色是纸币重要特征之一。相对于其他特征(数字、图案、大小等),颜色是区分不同纸币的凸显因素(Latimer, Smith, Buckingham, McKenzie & Gerstner, 2002)。理想的纸币需大众能接受、易识别(Williams & Anderson, 2007;De Heij, 2008a)。然而,目前还没有纸币的大众接受度研究、颜色对纸币(澳元除外)的认知过程(如易识别性)影响的实验室研究、颜色对纸币支付和流通职能影响的研究。本论文调查人民币的大众了解程度、接受度,比较一般颜色偏好及相关理论(如锥体对比理论)在人民币色彩偏好的适用性;并基于前人颜色相关注意、知觉研究,用实验考查纸币颜色对区分和识别等认知过程的影响;进一步基于营销心理学领域的颜色影响消费的情绪二维理论(Crowley, 1993)和消费者感知和评价的理论模型(Labrecque, Patrick &Milne, 2013),考查不同颜色纸币对其面值判断、使用意愿的影响。
研究一用问卷法整群抽样调查人们对颜色的一般偏好和对人民币设计的了解程度和偏好。研究二测量人民币颜色的物理区分度并改进最容易混淆的纸币颜色,进而通过4个实验考查纸币设计的颜色(区分度)及其他维度对纸币辨别的影响。研究三用量表法、场景选择法考查不同颜色纸币对使用意愿的影响及颜色的情绪、动机、心理意义等。
研究一结论如下:
关于一般颜色偏好,(1)红色最受人们喜爱,接着依次是青色、蓝色、绿色和白色等。(2)饱和度较低、明度最高的明色最受欢迎,其次是饱和度最高的饱和色,再次是饱和度较低、明度中等的柔和色,最不喜欢饱和度较低、明度最低的暗色。(3)主成分分析提取了4个因子,验证了“锥体对比理论”的假设。(4)颜色偏好随增龄变化,可以用老化过程的心理变化(如颜色情绪、动机)和生物学变化(如晶状体光谱投射、基础代谢率)来解释。(5)颜色偏好有性别差异。
关于对人民币设计的了解、偏好程度:(1)人们对人民币的了解程度总体偏低。(2)人们对人民币颜色的了解程度较高(66%以上),对于其(特别是反面)图案的了解程度较低。(3)人民币颜色偏好的程度都在“有点喜欢”以上,人民币颜色与大众选择相当一致。(4)人民币颜色偏好与一般颜色偏好、面值大小和图案偏好皆显著相关。(5)一半以上被试认为10元和50元颜色容易混淆。(6)70%被试选择保持人民币大小不变,对其大小接受度较高。(7)人们对人民币正面图案偏好显著低于对反面图案的偏好。(8)人民币颜色、图案偏好与了解程度相关多不显著。
研究二结论:(1)颜色的物理区分度高有利于纸质版和电子版人民币的快速区分。(2)颜色的物理区分度高有利于纸币的识别或知觉。(3)纸币区分中颜色和数字的作用比其他图案细节更重要。(4)人民币正面比反面更难区分,被试区分人民币正面时更依赖数字。(5)纸币区分时的注视点控制同时包含自下而上加工和自上而下加工。(6)光照影响纸币整理时间,低光照下的整理时间稍长于高光照下的整理时间。(7)熟悉度影响纸币区分,对不熟悉纸币的区分更依赖数字,注视点更多。(8)颜色的物理区分度对应心理区分度,改变颜色的物理区分度可有效增加心理区分度。
研究三结论:(1)不同饱和色的情绪、动机、心理意义不同。(2)唤醒度高、较高贵、较重的颜色面值判断更高,被试更愿意使用愉悦度高的颜色。(3)纸币颜色对使用意愿的影响满足消费者颜色感知和评价的认知中介模型假设。
综合三项研究的2个调查、6个实验,本研究的主要结论有:(1)人民币的大众接受度总体较高。对人民币的颜色偏好既与一般颜色偏好相关,也与面值大小相关。颜色偏好还与图案偏好显著相关。(2)一般颜色偏好方面,红色、青色和蓝色最受人们喜爱,明色是人们最喜欢的饱和度-明度水平,最不喜欢的是暗色。颜色偏好有年龄和性别差异。(3)颜色的物理区分度高有利于纸币的识别或知觉。纸币区分中颜色和数字的作用比其他图案细节更重要,纸币区分的注视点控制同时包含自下而上的加工和自上而下的加工。光照、熟悉度也会影响纸币区分。因此改变颜色的物理区分度是增加心理区分度的行之有效的手段和方法。(4)不同饱和色的情绪、动机和心理意义不同。人们对唤醒度高、高贵、重的颜色纸币的面值判断更高,被试更愿意使用愉悦度高颜色的纸币。纸币颜色对使用意愿的影响基本符合消费者颜色感知和评价模型。本研究为中国人颜色偏好、人民币的设计、纸币认知加工机制、颜色与纸币使用关系机制等提供实证参考依据和建议,并填补了相关研究的空白。
其他摘要Color isthe most salientfeature to memorize among all the characteristics of a banknote.It is also the most important factor in the discrimination of different banknotes, comparing to other dimensions(design details, size et al) of the banknotes(Latimer, Smith, Buckingham, McKenzie & Gerstner, 2002). An ideal banknote design should meet several needs including acceptable to the public(aesthetically pleasing) and the qualification of perception research(such as easily recognized by the general public (De Heij, 2008a; Williams & Anderson, 2007),to be a satisfactory and qualified banknotes. However, there is so far no research evidence on the public feedback on the design of RMB. And there is no published  experimental studyon color influence on cognitive process(for instance, discriminability) of banknotes fromany  countryexcept for Australia. Also, no such research on the influence of banknote color on the payment function and the role of circulation medium of banknotes were found. In thisstudy, I investigated the public acceptance and knowledge on RMB design and the subjects’ general color preference, and then didseveral laboratory experiments on color influence on banknote discrimination and identification based on previous research on color influence on attention and cognition.Furthermore, I examined the color influence on judging the values of banknotes and the will to use them based on two dimension emotional theory of consumption (Crowley, 1993)and the perception and appraisal theory (Labrecque, Patrick &Milne, 2013)in the area of marketing psychology.
A nationwide sample survey was conducted inResearch 1 to understand the subjects’ general color preference, public preferenceandknowledge on RMB design. In Research 2 the physical distinctivenesses of RMB colors was measured and then improved, then 4 experiment on the influence of color distinctiveness and other design dimensions on RMB discrimination and identification were done. In Research 3, I examined how the banknote color influence participants’ judgmentson the values of banknotesand the will to use themto examine the possible mediating role of emotion, motivation and psychological meaning (cognition appraisal).
The main conclusionsof Research 1 were as follows: On the color preference, (1)A unique color preference pattern characterized by red, cyan, and blue being preferred most, while white being preferred, too, was found. (2) Light colors were the most preferred level, followed by saturated colors, and then muted colors, while dark colors least. (3) Four factorshad been extracted in the principal component analysis. These factors were similar to that of the hypothesis of the Cone-Contrast Theory. (4) Color preference changes with advancing age, which could be explained by both psychological (e.g. color emotion, motivation) and biological (e.g. spectrum transmission of crystalline lens, basal metabolic rate) change with advancing age. (5) There are gender difference in color preference.
On the knowledge and preference of RMB design, (1) In general, participantshave fewknowledge on RMB design. (2) Over 66% participants could recall the colors of dge on RMB design. (2) Over 66% participants could recall the colors of RMB. Most participants could not remember the figures on RMB, especially thoseon the back side. (3) Participants like the color designs of RMB, and their choices of colors were fairlyconsistent with the current RMB design. (4) The color preferences of RMB are correlated with both general color preference and the currency denominations. Over half of the participants thought it was difficult to distinguish between 10 yuan and 50 yuan onthe perspective of color. (6) 70%of the participants chose to keep the RMB size unchanged, indicating the high acceptance of RMB size. (7) Participants preferred the figure design of the back side rather than the front side of RMB. (8) The correlation ofpreference of color, figure and knowledge of RMB design were mostly insignificant.
The main conclusionsof Research 2were as follows: (1) A high degree of psychophysical distinctiveness of color assists rapid distinction between different RMBs, either inthe paper form or the electronic form. (2) A high degree of physical distinctiveness of color is in favor of identification or perception of RMBs. (3) The roles of colors and numbers are more important than the design details in distinction of different RMBs. (4) It is harder for distinguish different RMBs according to the front side than the back side, and participants depend more on  numbers in the former situation. (5) The fixation control during distinction of different banknotes including both top-down and bottom-up process. (6) Illumination affects the sorting time of banknotes. Sorting time in lower illumination condition was marginally longer than in the higher illumination condition. (7) Familliarity affects the distinction of different banknotes. Participants depend more on numbers and they made more fixations when the material was unfamilliar (foreign banknotes) than that was familliar (RMB). (8) It is an effective way to change the physical distinctiveness of banknote color so as to alter the psychological distinctiveness.
The main conclusionsof Research 3were as follows: (1) The emotions, motivations, and psychological meanings of different saturated color differed from each other. (2) The ratings of arousal, nobleness, and heavy positively predict subject’s judging of banknotes. The pleasant rating positively predict subject’s will to use a banknote. (3) The influence of banknote color on willingnessto use a banknote met the assumption of the consumer’s color perception and appraisal theory.
These resultswill provide empirical evidence, reference and recommendations for the study field of color preference in Chinese, design of RMB, the mechanisms of banknote cognitive processing, the mechanism of color-consumption correlation, and will fill the gaps in RMB research and banknote color
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19866
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
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张玉静. 颜色的物理属性和心理效应 ——纸币辨别、设计偏好及使用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.
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