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Alternative TitleThe Effect of Secondary Taskon Causal Perception
Thesis Advisor禤宇明
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline心理学
Keyword因果知觉 双任务 注意分散 认知负荷 时间知觉
Abstract知觉客体间的因果关系称为因果知觉(causal perception)。因果知觉可以帮助人们理解自然规律并与环境进行有效交互。经典客体碰撞研究认为因果知觉是一种自动化的自下而上的加工过程,另一些研究则表明注意可能参与调解因果知觉。在日常生活中,往往多个事件同时发生,而且人们对事件的发生通常也没有预期因果,因此日常生活中人们往往是在多任务条件的分散注意状态下进行因果判断。因此,本论文聚焦于研究第二任务对因果知觉的影响,在更有生态效度的条件下探究因果知觉的机制。
Other AbstractBesides the basic physical properties, our visual system also has the ability to perceive the causal interaction between objects. This causal perception ability is critical for us to understand the rules of nature and therefore interact with it effectively. Some researchers suggest that causal perception is an automatic bottom-up process, others suggest that attention can affect causal perception. Causal judgments with attention distraction are typical in everyday life, because people usually have no expectation for the causal events. Can attention distraction affect causal perception? How? Answers to these questions help to understand the characteristics of causal perception, and help people better interact with environment, but so far we didn’t find a direct answer in literatures.
Study of the following areas may indirectly help to find the answer. Studies in causal perception area find that continuity in time perception is one of the most important factors that affect causal perception. The more continuous, the more perceived causality. Using dual task paradigm, studies in time perception find that a distractive secondary task shortens perceived time duration. Therefore, we hypothesize that if a distractive secondary task occurs when participants are doing a causal judgment task, it will increase perceived causality. To test this, we add a digital judgment task as a secondary task to Michotte’s launching task.
Study 1 investigates whether distractive stimulus and a secondary task affects causal perception. We found that: mere appearance of distractive stimulus isn’t sufficient to influence causal perception. Performing a concurrent secondary task biased the participants toward perceiving more causality. This effect is named as secondary task effect of causal perception.
Study 2 investigates whether the onset of the secondary task stimulus makes a difference, and we found that: the effect is bigger when the secondary task stimulus appears near the contact time (key point of the causal event). The effect is bigger when it appears before the contact time than after.
Study 3 investigates whether the location of the secondary task stimulus makes an influence, and we found that: the effect is smaller when the secondary task stimulus appears near the causal task stimulus than away from it.
Overall, in this study we found a steady effect of secondary task on causal perception, i.e. performing a concurrent secondary task can bias the visual system toward perceiving the test event as causal launching. According to attentional gate model of time perception, the secondary task reduced participates’ attention resources on causal perception task, therefore narrowed the attentional gate of time perception, hense increased the perceived time continuity of the causal events, and then increased the perceived causal launching.
Subject Area基础心理学
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
田波. 第二任务对因果知觉的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.
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